The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of duloxetine delayed-release capsules. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse reactions reported since market introduction that were temporally related to duloxetine delayed release capsules therapy and not mentioned elsewhere in labeling include: acute pancreatitis, anaphylactic reaction, aggression and anger (particularly early in treatment or after treatment discontinuation), angioneurotic edema, angle-closure glaucoma, colitis (microscopic or unspecified), cutaneous vasculitis (sometimes associated with systemic involvement), extrapyramidal disorder, galactorrhea, gynecological bleeding, hallucinations, hyperglycemia, hyperprolactinemia, hypersensitivity, hypertensive crisis, muscle spasm, rash, restless legs syndrome, seizures upon treatment discontinuation, supraventricular arrhythmia, tinnitus (upon treatment discontinuation), trismus, and urticaria.
Both CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 are responsible for duloxetine metabolism.
When duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 mg was co-administered with fluvoxamine 100 mg, a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor, to male subjects (n=14) duloxetine AUC was increased approximately 6-fold, the Cmax was increased about 2.5-fold, and duloxetine t1/2 was increased approximately 3-fold. Other drugs that inhibit CYP1A2 metabolism include cimetidine and quinolone antimicrobials such as ciprofloxacin and enoxacin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].
Concomitant use of duloxetine delayed-release capsules (40 mg once daily) with paroxetine (20 mg once daily) increased the concentration of duloxetine AUC by about 60%, and greater degrees of inhibition are expected with higher doses of paroxetine. Similar effects would be expected with other potent CYP2D6 inhibitors (e.g., fluoxetine, quinidine) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].
Concomitant administration of duloxetine delayed-release capsules 40 mg twice daily with fluvoxamine 100 mg, a potent CYP1A2 inhibitor, to CYP2D6 poor metabolizer subjects (n=14) resulted in a 6-fold increase in duloxetine AUC and Cmax .
Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design that have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Altered anticoagulant effects, including increased bleeding, have been reported when SSRIs or SNRIs are co-administered with warfarin. Concomitant administration of warfarin (2 to 9 mg once daily) under steady state conditions with duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 or 120 mg once daily for up to 14 days in healthy subjects (n=15) did not significantly change INR from baseline (mean INR changes ranged from 0.05 to +0.07). The total warfarin (protein bound plus free drug) pharmacokinetics (AUCτ,ss, Cmax,ss or tmax,ss) for both R- and S-warfarin were not altered by duloxetine. Because of the potential effect of duloxetine on platelets, patients receiving warfarin therapy should be carefully monitored when duloxetine delayed-release capsule is initiated or discontinued [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Under steady-state conditions for duloxetine delayed-release capsules (60 mg Q 12 hours) and lorazepam (2 mg Q 12 hours), the pharmacokinetics of duloxetine were not affected by co-administration.
Under steady-state conditions for duloxetine delayed-release capsules (20 mg qhs) and temazepam (30 mg qhs), the pharmacokinetics of duloxetine were not affected by co-administration.
Duloxetine delayed-release capsules have an enteric coating that resists dissolution until reaching a segment of the gastrointestinal tract where the pH exceeds 5.5. In extremely acidic conditions, duloxetine delayed-release capsules, unprotected by the enteric coating, may undergo hydrolysis to form naphthol. Caution is advised in using duloxetine delayed-release capsules in patients with conditions that may slow gastric emptying (e.g., some diabetics). Drugs that raise the gastrointestinal pH may lead to an earlier release of duloxetine. However, co-administration of duloxetine delayed-release capsules with aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids (51 mEq) or duloxetine delayed-release capsules with famotidine, had no significant effect on the rate or extent of duloxetine absorption after administration of a 40 mg oral dose. It is unknown whether the concomitant administration of proton pump inhibitors affects duloxetine absorption [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)].
In vitro drug interaction studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not induce CYP1A2 activity. Therefore, an increase in the metabolism of CYP1A2 substrates (e.g., theophylline, caffeine) resulting from induction is not anticipated, although clinical studies of induction have not been performed. Duloxetine is an inhibitor of the CYP1A2 isoform in in vitro studies, and in two clinical studies the average (90% confidence interval) increase in theophylline AUC was 7% (1% to 15%) and 20% (13% to 27%) when co-administered with duloxetine delayed-release capsules (60 mg twice daily).
Duloxetine is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. When duloxetine delayed-release capsules was administered (at a dose of 60 mg twice daily) in conjunction with a single 50 mg dose of desipramine, a CYP2D6 substrate, the AUC of desipramine increased 3-fold [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].
Results of in vitro studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not inhibit activity. In a clinical study, the pharmacokinetics of S-warfarin, a CYP2C9 substrate, were not significantly affected by duloxetine [see Drug Interactions (7.4)].
Results of in vitro studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not inhibit or induce CYP3A activity. Therefore, an increase or decrease in the metabolism of CYP3A substrates (e.g., oral contraceptives and other steroidal agents) resulting from induction or inhibition is not anticipated, although clinical studies have not been performed.
Results of in vitro studies demonstrate that duloxetine does not inhibit CYP2C19 activity at therapeutic concentrations. Inhibition of the metabolism of CYP2C19 substrates is therefore not anticipated, although clinical studies have not been performed.
When duloxetine delayed-release capsules and ethanol were administered several hours apart so that peak concentrations of each would coincide, duloxetine delayed-release capsules did not increase the impairment of mental and motor skills caused by alcohol.
In the duloxetine delayed-release capsules clinical trials database, three duloxetine delayed-release capsules-treated patients had liver injury as manifested by ALT and total bilirubin elevations, with evidence of obstruction. Substantial intercurrent ethanol use was present in each of these cases, and this may have contributed to the abnormalities seen [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2,5.12)].
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