There have been reports of hepatic failure, sometimes fatal, in patients treated with duloxetine delayed-release capsules. These cases have presented as hepatitis with abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, and elevation of transaminase levels to more than twenty times the upper limit of normal with or without jaundice, reflecting a mixed or hepatocellular pattern of liver injury. Duloxetine delayed-release capsules should be discontinued in patients who develop jaundice or other evidence of clinically significant liver dysfunction and should not be resumed unless another cause can be established.
Cases of cholestatic jaundice with minimal elevation of transaminase levels have also been reported. Other postmarketing reports indicate that elevated transaminases, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase have occurred in patients with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis.
Duloxetine delayed-release capsules increased the risk of elevation of serum transaminase levels in development program clinical trials. Liver transaminase elevations resulted in the discontinuation of 0.3% (92/34,756) of duloxetine delayed-release capsules-treated patients. In most patients, the median time to detection of the transaminase elevation was about two months. In adult placebo-controlled trials in any indication, for patients with normal and abnormal baseline ALT values, elevation of ALT >3 times the upper limit of normal occurred in 1.25% (144/11,496) of duloxetine delayed-release capsules-treated patients compared to 0.45% (39/8716) of placebo-treated patients. In adult placebo-controlled studies using a fixed dose design, there was evidence of a dose response relationship for ALT and AST elevation of >3 times the upper limit of normal and >5 times the upper limit of normal, respectively.
Because it is possible that duloxetine delayed-release capsules and alcohol may interact to cause liver injury or that duloxetine delayed-release capsules may aggravate pre-existing liver disease, duloxetine delayed-release capsules should not be prescribed to patients with substantial alcohol use or evidence of chronic liver disease.
Orthostatic hypotension, falls and syncope have been reported with therapeutic doses of duloxetine delayed-release capsules. Syncope and orthostatic hypotension tend to occur within the first week of therapy but can occur at any time during duloxetine delayed-release capsules treatment, particularly after dose increases. The risk of falling appears to be related to the degree of orthostatic decrease in blood pressure as well as other factors that may increase the underlying risk of falls.
In an analysis of patients from all placebo-controlled trials, patients treated with duloxetine delayed-release capsules reported a higher rate of falls compared to patients treated with placebo. Risk appears to be related to the presence of orthostatic decrease in blood pressure. The risk of blood pressure decreases may be greater in patients taking concomitant medications that induce orthostatic hypotension (such as antihypertensives) or are potent CYP1A2 inhibitors [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) and Drug Interactions (7.1)] and in patients taking duloxetine delayed-release capsules at doses above 60 mg daily. Consideration should be given to dose reduction or discontinuation of duloxetine delayed-release capsules in patients who experience symptomatic orthostatic hypotension, falls and/or syncope during duloxetine delayed-release capsules therapy.
Risk of falling also appeared to be proportional to a patient’s underlying risk for falls and appeared to increase steadily with age. As elderly patients tend to have a higher underlying risk for falls due to a higher prevalence of risk factors such as use of multiple medications, medical comorbidities and gait disturbances, the impact of increasing age by itself is unclear. Falls with serious consequences including bone fractures and hospitalizations have been reported [see Adverse Reactions (6.10) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs, including duloxetine delayed-release capsules, alone but particularly with concomitant use of other serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, and St. John’s Wort) and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular, MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).
Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome.
The concomitant use of duloxetine delayed-release capsules with MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders is contraindicated. Duloxetine delayed-release capsules should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with an MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking duloxetine delayed-release capsules. Duloxetine delayed-release capsules should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the MAOI [see Dosage and Administration (2.8, 2.9), and Contraindications (4)].
If concomitant use of duloxetine delayed-release capsules with other serotonergic drugs including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, tryptophan, amphetamines, and St. John’s Wort is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. Treatment with duloxetine delayed-release capsules and any concomitant serotonergic agents, should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
Drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake inhibition, including duloxetine delayed-release capsules, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. A post-marketing study showed a higher incidence of postpartum hemorrhage in mothers taking duloxetine. Other bleeding events related to SSRI and SNRI use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), warfarin, and other anti-coagulants may add to this risk.
Inform patients about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of duloxetine delayed-release capsules and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation [see Drug Interations (7.4)].
Severe skin reactions, including erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), can occur with duloxetine delayed-release capsules. The reporting rate of SJS associated with duloxetine delayed-release capsules use exceeds the general population background incidence rate for this serious skin reaction (1 to 2 cases per million person years). The reporting rate is generally accepted to be an underestimate due to underreporting.
Duloxetine delayed-release capsules should be discontinued at the first appearance of blisters, peeling rash, mucosal erosions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity if no other etiology can be identified.
Discontinuation symptoms have been systematically evaluated in patients taking duloxetine delayed-release capsules. Following abrupt or tapered discontinuation in adult placebo-controlled clinical trials, the following symptoms occurred at 1% or greater and at a significantly higher rate in duloxetine delayed-release capsules-treated patients compared to those discontinuing from placebo: dizziness, headache, nausea, diarrhea, paresthesia, irritability, vomiting, insomnia, anxiety, hyperhidrosis, and fatigue.
During marketing of other SSRIs and SNRIs (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), there have been spontaneous reports of adverse events occurring upon discontinuation of these drugs, particularly when abrupt, including the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesias such as electric shock sensations), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, hypomania, tinnitus, and seizures. Although these events are generally self-limiting, some have been reported to be severe.
Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with duloxetine delayed-release capsules. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)].
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