The safety profiles of azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone monotherapy have been individually established. To characterize the toxicological profile for Edarbyclor, a 13-week repeat-dose toxicity study was conducted in rats. The results of this study indicated that the combined administration of azilsartan medoxomil, M-II, and chlorthalidone resulted in increased exposures to chlorthalidone. Pharmacologically-mediated toxicity, including suppression of body weight gain and decreased food consumption in male rats, and increases in blood urea nitrogen in both sexes, was enhanced by coadministration of azilsartan medoxomil, M-II, and chlorthalidone. With the exception of these findings, there were no toxicologically synergistic effects in this study.
In an embryo-fetal developmental study in rats, there was no teratogenicity or increase in fetal mortality in the litters of dams receiving azilsartan medoxomil, M-II and chlorthalidone concomitantly at maternally toxic doses.
Reproductive Toxicology: In peri- and postnatal rat development studies, adverse effects on pup viability, delayed incisor eruption and dilatation of the renal pelvis along with hydronephrosis were seen when azilsartan medoxomil was administered to pregnant and nursing rats at 1.2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. Reproductive toxicity studies indicated that azilsartan medoxomil was not teratogenic when administered at oral doses up to 1000 mg azilsartan medoxomil/kg/day to pregnant rats (122 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) or up to 50 mg azilsartan medoxomil/kg/day to pregnant rabbits (12 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). M-II also was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits at doses up to 3000 mg M-II/kg/day. Azilsartan crossed the placenta and was found in the fetuses of pregnant rats and was excreted into the milk of lactating rats.
Reproductive toxicology: Reproduction studies have been performed in the rat and the rabbit at doses up to 420 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus. Thiazides cross the placental barrier and appear in cord blood.
Pharmacology: Biochemical studies in animals have suggested reasons for the prolonged effect of chlorthalidone. Absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is slow because of its low solubility. After passage to the liver, some of the drug enters the general circulation, while some is excreted in the bile, to be reabsorbed later. In the general circulation, it is distributed widely to the tissue, but is taken up in highest concentrations by the kidneys, where amounts have been found 72 hours after ingestion, long after it has disappeared from other tissues. The drug is excreted unchanged in the urine.
The antihypertensive effects of Edarbyclor have been demonstrated in a total of 5 randomized controlled studies, which included 4 double-blind, active-controlled studies and 1 open-label, long-term active-controlled study. The studies ranged from 8 weeks to 12 months in duration, at doses ranging from 20/12.5 mg to 80/25 mg once daily. A total of 5310 patients (3082 given Edarbyclor and 2228 given active comparator) with moderate or severe hypertension were studied. Overall, randomized patients had a mean age of 57 years, and included 52% males, 72% whites, 21% blacks, 15% with diabetes, 70% with mild or moderate renal impairment, and a mean BMI of 31.6 kg/m2 .
An 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel group factorial trial in patients with moderate to severe hypertension compared the effect on blood pressure of Edarbyclor with the respective monotherapies. The trial randomized 1714 patients with baseline systolic blood pressure between 160 and 190 mm Hg (mean 165 mm Hg) and a baseline diastolic blood pressure <119 mm Hg (mean 95 mm Hg) to one of the 11 active treatment arms.
The 6 treatment combinations of azilsartan medoxomil 20, 40, or 80 mg and chlorthalidone 12.5 or 25 mg resulted in statistically significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as determined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) (Table 2) and clinic measurement (Table 3) at trough compared with the respective individual monotherapies. The clinic blood pressure reductions appear larger than those observed with ABPM, because the former include a placebo effect, which was not directly measured. Most of the antihypertensive effect of Edarbyclor occurs within 1-2 weeks of dosing. The blood pressure lowering effect was maintained throughout the 24-hour period (Figure 3).
|Chlorthalidone, mg||Azilsartan Medoxomil, mg|
|0||N/A||-12 / -8||-13 / -7||-15 / -9|
|12.5||-13 / -7||-23 / -13||-24 / -14||-26 / -17|
|25||-16 / -8||-26 / -15||-30 / -17||-28 / -16|
|Chlorthalidone, mg||Azilsartan Medoxomil, mg|
|0||N/A||-20 / -7||-23 / -9||-24 / -10|
|12.5||-21 / -7||-34 / -14||-37 / -16||-37 / -17|
|25||-27 / -9||-37 / — 16||-40 / -17||-40 / -19|
Edarbyclor was effective in reducing blood pressure regardless of age, gender, or race.
Edarbyclor was effective in treating black patients (usually a low-renin population).
In a 12-week, double-blind forced-titration trial, Edarbyclor 40/25 mg was statistically superior (P<0.001) to olmesartan medoxomil – hydrochlorothiazide (OLM/HCTZ) 40/25 mg in reducing systolic blood pressure in patients with moderate to severe hypertension (Table 4). Similar results were observed in all subgroups, including age, gender, or race of patients.
|Edarbyclor 40/25 mgN=355||OLM/HCTZ 40/25 mgN=364|
|Clinic(Mean Baseline 165/96 mm Hg)||-43 / -19||-37 / -16|
|Trough by ABPM (22-24 hours)(Mean Baseline 153/92 mm Hg)||-33 / -20||-26 / -16|
Edarbyclor lowered blood pressure more effectively than OLM/HCTZ at each hour of the 24-hour interdosing period as measured by ABPM.
There are no trials of Edarbyclor demonstrating reductions in cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension; however, trials with chlorthalidone and at least one drug pharmacologically similar to azilsartan medoxomil have demonstrated such benefits.
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