No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or fertility studies have been conducted with the combination of azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone or with chlorthalidone alone. However, these studies have been conducted for azilsartan medoxomil, azilsartan and M-II.
Carcinogenesis: Azilsartan medoxomil was not carcinogenic when assessed in 26-week transgenic (Tg.rasH2) mouse and 2-year rat studies. The highest doses tested (450 mg azilsartan medoxomil/kg/day in the mouse and 600 mg azilsartan medoxomil/kg/day in the rat) produced exposures to azilsartan that are 12 (mice) and 27 (rats) times the average exposure to azilsartan in humans given the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD, 80 mg azilsartan medoxomil/day). M-II was not carcinogenic when assessed in 26-week Tg.rasH2 mouse and 2-year rat studies. The highest doses tested (approximately 8000 mg M-II/kg/day (males) and 11,000 mg M-II/kg/day (females) in the mouse and 1000 mg M-II/kg/day (males) and up to 3000 mg M-II/kg/day (females) in the rat) produced exposures that are, on average, about 30 (mice) and 7 (rats) times the average exposure to M-II in humans at the MRHD.
Mutagenesis: Chlorthalidone demonstrated no potential for mutagenic effects at non-cytotoxic concentrations and is considered not to pose a mutagenic risk to humans.
Azilsartan medoxomil, azilsartan, and M-II were positive for structural aberrations in the Chinese Hamster Lung Cytogenic Assay. In this assay, structural chromosomal aberrations were observed with the prodrug, azilsartan medoxomil, without metabolic activation. The active moiety, azilsartan, was also positive in this assay both with and without metabolic activation. The major human metabolite, M-II was also positive in this assay during a 24-hr assay without metabolic activation.
Azilsartan medoxomil, azilsartan, and M-II were devoid of genotoxic potential in the Ames reverse mutation assay with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli , the in vitro Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell forward mutation assay, the in vitro mouse lymphoma (tk) gene mutation test, the ex vivo unscheduled DNA synthesis test, and the in vivo mouse and/or rat bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Impairment of Fertility: Chlorthalidone at a dosage of 100 mg/kg had no effect on fertility in rats. There was no effect of azilsartan medoxomil on the fertility of male or female rats at oral doses of up to 1000 mg azilsartan medoxomil/kg/day [6000 mg/m2 (approximately 122 times the MRHD of 80 mg azilsartan medoxomil/60 kg on a mg/m2 basis)]. Fertility of rats also was unaffected at doses of up to 3000 mg M-II/kg/day.
The antihypertensive effects of Edarbyclor have been demonstrated in a total of 5 randomized controlled studies, which included 4 double-blind, active-controlled studies and 1 open-label, long-term active-controlled study. The studies ranged from 8 weeks to 12 months in duration, at doses ranging from 20/12.5 mg to 80/25 mg once daily. A total of 5310 patients (3082 given Edarbyclor and 2228 given active comparator) with moderate or severe hypertension were studied. Overall, randomized patients had a mean age of 57 years, and included 52% males, 72% whites, 21% blacks, 15% with diabetes, 70% with mild or moderate renal impairment, and a mean BMI of 31.6 kg/m2 .
An 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel group factorial trial in patients with moderate to severe hypertension compared the effect on blood pressure of Edarbyclor with the respective monotherapies. The trial randomized 1714 patients with baseline systolic blood pressure between 160 and 190 mm Hg (mean 165 mm Hg) and a baseline diastolic blood pressure <119 mm Hg (mean 95 mm Hg) to one of the 11 active treatment arms.
The 6 treatment combinations of azilsartan medoxomil 20, 40, or 80 mg and chlorthalidone 12.5 or 25 mg resulted in statistically significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as determined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) (Table 2) and clinic measurement (Table 3) at trough compared with the respective individual monotherapies. The clinic blood pressure reductions appear larger than those observed with ABPM, because the former include a placebo effect, which was not directly measured. Most of the antihypertensive effect of Edarbyclor occurs within 1-2 weeks of dosing. The blood pressure lowering effect was maintained throughout the 24-hour period (Figure 3).
|Chlorthalidone, mg||Azilsartan Medoxomil, mg|
|0||N/A||-12 / -8||-13 / -7||-15 / -9|
|12.5||-13 / -7||-23 / -13||-24 / -14||-26 / -17|
|25||-16 / -8||-26 / -15||-30 / -17||-28 / -16|
|Chlorthalidone, mg||Azilsartan Medoxomil, mg|
|0||N/A||-20 / -7||-23 / -9||-24 / -10|
|12.5||-21 / -7||-34 / -14||-37 / -16||-37 / -17|
|25||-27 / -9||-37 / — 16||-40 / -17||-40 / -19|
Edarbyclor was effective in reducing blood pressure regardless of age, gender, or race.
Edarbyclor was effective in treating black patients (usually a low-renin population).
In a 12-week, double-blind forced-titration trial, Edarbyclor 40/25 mg was statistically superior (P<0.001) to olmesartan medoxomil – hydrochlorothiazide (OLM/HCTZ) 40/25 mg in reducing systolic blood pressure in patients with moderate to severe hypertension (Table 4). Similar results were observed in all subgroups, including age, gender, or race of patients.
|Edarbyclor 40/25 mgN=355||OLM/HCTZ 40/25 mgN=364|
|Clinic(Mean Baseline 165/96 mm Hg)||-43 / -19||-37 / -16|
|Trough by ABPM (22-24 hours)(Mean Baseline 153/92 mm Hg)||-33 / -20||-26 / -16|
Edarbyclor lowered blood pressure more effectively than OLM/HCTZ at each hour of the 24-hour interdosing period as measured by ABPM.
There are no trials of Edarbyclor demonstrating reductions in cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension; however, trials with chlorthalidone and at least one drug pharmacologically similar to azilsartan medoxomil have demonstrated such benefits.
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