Co-administration of zolpidem with other CNS depressants increases the risk of CNS depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Zolpidem tartrate was evaluated in healthy volunteers in single-dose interaction studies for several CNS drugs.
Imipramine in combination with zolpidem produced no pharmacokinetic interaction other than a 20% decrease in peak levels of imipramine, but there was an additive effect of decreased alertness. Similarly, chlorpromazine in combination with zolpidem produced no pharmacokinetic interaction, but there was an additive effect of decreased alertness and psychomotor performance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
A study involving haloperidol and zolpidem revealed no effect of haloperidol on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of zolpidem. The lack of a drug interaction following single-dose administration does not predict the absence of an effect following chronic administration [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
An additive adverse effect on psychomotor performance between alcohol and oral zolpidem was demonstrated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Concomitant administration of zolpidem and sertraline increases exposure to zolpidem and may increase the pharmacodynamics effect of zolpidem [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
After multiple doses of zolpidem tartrate and fluoxetine an increase in the zolpidem half-life (17%) was observed. There was no evidence of an additive effect in psychomotor performance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Some compounds known to inhibit CYP3A may increase exposure to zolpidem. The effect of other P450 enzymes on the exposure to zolpidem is not known.
Rifampin, a CYP3A4 inducer, significantly reduced the exposure to and the pharmacodynamics effects of zolpidem. Use of Rifampin in combination with zolpidem may decrease the efficacy of zolpidem.
Ketoconazole, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, increased the pharmacodynamics effects of zolpidem. Consideration should be given to using a lower dose of zolpidem when ketoconazole and zolpidem are given together.
Pregnancy Category C:
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Edluar in pregnant women. Studies in children to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to zolpidem have not been conducted; however, cases of severe neonatal respiratory depression have been reported when zolpidem was used at the end of pregnancy, especially when taken with other CNS-depressants. Children born to mothers taking sedative-hypnotic drugs may be at risk for withdrawal symptoms during the postnatal period. Neonatal flaccidity has also been reported in infants born to mothers who received sedative-hypnotic drugs during pregnancy. Edluar should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the fetus.
Administration of zolpidem to pregnant rats and rabbits resulted in adverse effects on offspring development at doses greater than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 10 mg/day (approximately 8 mg/day zolpidem base); however, teratogenicity was not observed.
When zolpidem was administered at oral doses of 4, 20, and 100 mg base/kg to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis, dose-related decreases in fetal skull ossification occurred at all but the lowest dose, which is approximately 5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. In rabbits treated during organogenesis with zolpidem at oral doses of 1, 4, and 16 mg base/kg, increased embryo-fetal death and incomplete fetal skeletal ossification occurred at the highest dose. The no-effect dose for embryo-fetal toxicity in rabbits is approximately 10 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis. Administration of zolpidem to rats at oral doses of 4, 20, and 100 mg base/kg during the latter part of pregnancy and throughout lactation produced decreased offspring growth and survival at all but the lowest dose, which is approximately 5 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
Edluar has no established use in labor and delivery [see Pregnancy (8.1)].
Zolpidem is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Edluar is administered to a nursing woman.
Edluar is not recommended for use in children. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established in pediatric patients below the age of 18.
In an 8-week controlled study in 201 pediatric patients (aged 6-17 years) with insomnia associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an oral solution of zolpidem tartrate dosed at 0.25mg/kg at bedtime did not decrease sleep latency compared to placebo. Ten patients on zolpidem (7.4%) discontinued treatment due to an adverse reaction.
Psychiatric and nervous system disorders comprised the most frequent (>5%) treatment emergent adverse reactions observed with zolpidem versus placebo and included dizziness (23.5% vs. 1.5%), headache (12.5% vs. 9.2%), and hallucinations reported in 7% of the pediatric patients who received zolpidem; none of the pediatric patients who received placebo reported hallucinations [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
A total of 154 patients in U.S. controlled clinical trials and 897 patients in non-U.S. clinical trials who received oral zolpidem were ≥60 years of age. For a pool of U.S. patients receiving zolpidem tartrate at doses of ≤10 mg or placebo, there were three adverse events occurring at an incidence of at least 3% for zolpidem and for which the zolpidem incidence was at least twice the placebo incidence (i.e., they could be considered drug-related).
A total of 30/1,959 (1.5%) non-U.S. patients receiving zolpidem tartrate reported falls, including 28/30 (93%) who were ≥70 years of age. Of these 28 patients, 23 (82%) were receiving zolpidem doses >10 mg. A total of 24/1,959 (1.2%) non-U.S. patients receiving zolpidem reported confusion, including 18/24 (75%) who were ≥70 years of age. Of these 18 patients, 14 (78%) were receiving zolpidem doses >10 mg.
The dose of Edluar in elderly patients is 5 mg to minimize adverse effects related to impaired motor and/or cognitive performance and unusual sensitivity to sedative/hypnotic drugs [see Dosage and Administration (2), Warnings and Precautions (5) Clinical Pharmacology (12) and Clinical Studies (14)].
Women clear zolpidem tartrate from the body at a lower rate than men, Cmax and AUC parameters of zolpidem were approximately 45% higher at the same dose in female subjects compared with male subjects. Given the higher blood levels of zolpidem tartrate in women compared to men at a given dose, the recommended dose of Edluar for adult women is 5 mg, and the recommended dose for adult men is 5 or 10 mg.
In geriatric patients, clearance of zolpidem is similar in men and women. The recommended dose of Edluar in geriatric patients is 5 mg regardless of gender.
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