Efavirenz, Lamivudine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (Page 2 of 12)

5.5 Psychiatric Symptoms

Serious psychiatric adverse experiences have been reported in patients treated with EFV, a component of efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets. In controlled trials of 1,008 patients treated with regimens containing EFV for a mean of 2.1 years and 635 patients treated with control regimens for a mean of 1.5 years, the frequency (regardless of causality) of specific serious psychiatric events among patients who received EFV or control regimens, respectively, were severe depression (2.4%, 0.9%), suicidal ideation (0.7%, 0.3%), nonfatal suicide attempts (0.5%, 0), aggressive behavior (0.4%, 0.5%), paranoid reactions (0.4%, 0.3%), and manic reactions (0.2%, 0.3%). When psychiatric symptoms similar to those noted above were combined and evaluated as a group in a multifactorial analysis of data from a study using EFV 600 mg, treatment with EFV was associated with an increase in the occurrence of these selected psychiatric symptoms. Other factors associated with an increase in the occurrence of these psychiatric symptoms were history of injection drug use, psychiatric history, and receipt of psychiatric medication at study entry; similar associations were observed in both the EFV and control treatment groups. In a study using EFV 600 mg, onset of new serious psychiatric symptoms occurred throughout the study for both EFV-treated and control-treated patients. One percent of EFV-treated patients discontinued or interrupted treatment because of one or more of these selected psychiatric symptoms.
In the ENCORE1 (Evaluation of Novel Concepts in Optimization of antiRetroviral Efficacy) study, at Week 48 the frequency (regardless of causality) of the most common (occurring in > 1% patients) psychiatric events among patients who received EFV 400 mg (N = 321) or EFV 600 mg (N = 309) regimens, respectively, were: abnormal dreams (8.7%, 11.3%), insomnia (6.2%, 6.5%), somnolence (3.1%, 3.9%), depression (3.1%, 1.6%), nightmare (1.9%, 2.6%), sleep disorder (2.2%, 1.3%), and anxiety (1.2%, 1.3%). There have also been occasional postmarketing reports of death by suicide, delusions, psychosis-like behavior, although a causal relationship to the use of EFV cannot be determined from these reports [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. Postmarketing cases of catatonia have also been reported and may be associated with increased efavirenz exposure. Patients with serious psychiatric adverse experiences should seek immediate medical evaluation to assess the possibility that the symptoms may be related to the use of EFV, and if so, to determine whether the risks of continued therapy outweigh the benefits.

5.6 Nervous System Symptoms

Fifty-three percent (531/1,008) of patients receiving EFV, a component of efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, in controlled trials reported central nervous system symptoms (any grade, regardless of causality) compared to 25% (156/635) of patients receiving control regimens. These symptoms included, but were not limited to, dizziness (28.1% of the 1,008 patients), insomnia (16.3%), impaired concentration (8.3%), somnolence (7.0%), abnormal dreams (6.2%), and hallucinations (1.2%). These symptoms were severe in 2.0% of patients and 2.1% of patients discontinued therapy as a result. These symptoms usually begin during the first or second day of therapy and generally resolve after the first 2 to 4 weeks of therapy. After 4 weeks of therapy, the prevalence of nervous system symptoms of at least moderate severity ranged from 5% to 9% in patients treated with regimens containing EFV and from 3% to 5% in patients treated with a control regimen. Inform patients that these common symptoms were likely to improve with continued therapy and were not predictive of subsequent onset of the less frequent psychiatric symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Dosing at bedtime may improve the tolerability of these nervous system symptoms [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

In the ENCORE1 study, at Week 48, 40% of EFV 400 mg recipients and 48% of EFV 600 mg recipients reported central nervous system disorders. The most common symptoms (> 10%) were dizziness (27% vs. 35%) and headache (11% vs. 11%).

Late-onset neurotoxicity, including ‚Äčataxia and encephalopathy (impaired consciousness, confusion, psychomotor slowing, psychosis, delirium), may occur months to years after beginning efavirenz therapy. Some events of late-onset neurotoxicity have occurred in patients with CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms which are associated with increased efavirenz levels despite daily dosages of 600 mg of efavirenz. Patients presenting with signs and symptoms of serious neurologic adverse experiences should be evaluated promptly to assess the possibility that these events may be related to efavirenz use, and whether discontinuation of efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets is warranted.

5.7 Embryo-Fetal Toxicity

EFV, a component of efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, may cause fetal harm when administered during the first trimester to a pregnant woman. Advise females of reproductive potential who are receiving EFV to avoid pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3)].

5.8 Skin and Systemic Hypersensitivity Reaction

In controlled clinical trials, 26% (266/1,008) of patients treated with 600 mg EFV experienced new-onset skin rash compared with 17% (111/635) of patients treated in control groups. Rash associated with blistering, moist desquamation, or ulceration occurred in 0.9% (9/1,008) of patients treated with EFV. The incidence of Grade 4 rash (e.g., erythema multiforme, Stevens- Johnson syndrome) in patients treated with EFV in all studies and expanded access was 0.1%. Rashes are usually mild-to-moderate maculopapular skin eruptions that occur within the first 2 weeks of initiating therapy with EFV (median time to onset of rash in adults was 11 days) and, in most patients continuing therapy with EFV, rash resolves within 1 month (median duration, 16 days). The discontinuation rate for rash in clinical trials was 1.7% (17/1,008).

EFV can generally be reinitiated in patients interrupting therapy because of rash. EFV should be discontinued in patients developing severe rash associated with blistering, desquamation, mucosal involvement, or fever. Appropriate antihistamines and/or corticosteroids may improve the tolerability and hasten the resolution of rash. For patients who have had a life-threatening cutaneous reaction (e.g., Stevens-Johnson syndrome), alternate therapy should be considered [see Contraindications (4)].
In the ENCORE1 study at Week 48, different types of rash (such as rash, rash papular, rash maculopapular and rash pruritic) occurred in 32% of EFV 600 mg recipients and 26% of EFV 400 mg recipients. Grade 3 to 4 rash was reported in 3% of EFV 600 mg recipients and 1% of EFV 400 mg recipients. The discontinuation rate for rash in the ENCORE1 study was 3% of EFV 600 mg recipients and 1% of EFV 400 mg recipients.

5.9 Hepatotoxicity

Postmarketing cases of hepatitis, including fulminant hepatitis progressing to liver failure requiring transplantation or resulting in death, have been reported in patients treated with EFV. Reports have included patients with underlying hepatic disease, including coinfection with hepatitis B or C, and patients without pre-existing hepatic disease or other identifiable risk factors.

EFV, a component of efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, is not recommended for patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment. Careful monitoring is recommended for patients with mild hepatic impairment receiving EFV [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].

Monitoring of liver enzymes before and during treatment is recommended for all patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Consider discontinuing efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in patients with persistent elevations of serum transaminases to greater than five times the upper limit of the normal range.

Discontinue efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate if elevation of serum transaminases is accompanied by clinical signs or symptoms of hepatitis or hepatic decompensation.

5.10 Pancreatitis

In pediatric patients with a history of prior antiretroviral nucleoside exposure, a history of pancreatitis, or other significant risk factors for the development of pancreatitis, 3TC, a component of efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, should be used with caution. Treatment with efavirenz, lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate should be stopped immediately if clinical signs, symptoms, or laboratory abnormalities suggestive of pancreatitis occur [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

5.11 Convulsions

Convulsions have been observed in patients receiving EFV, generally in the presence of known medical history of seizures [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)]. Caution should be taken in any patient with a history of seizures. Patients who are receiving concomitant anticonvulsant medications primarily metabolized by the liver, such as phenytoin and phenobarbital, may require periodic monitoring of plasma levels [see Drug Interactions (7.5)].

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