The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Effient. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Immune system disorders — hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis [see Contraindications (4.3)]
Coadministration of Effient and NSAIDs (used chronically) may increase the risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
As with other oral P2Y12 inhibitors, coadministration of opioid agonists delay and reduce the absorption of prasugrel’s active metabolite presumably because of slowed gastric emptying [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Consider the use of a parenteral anti-platelet agent in acute coronary syndrome patients requiring coadministration of morphine or other opioid agonists.
Effient can be administered with drugs that are inducers or inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Effient can be administered with aspirin (75 mg to 325 mg per day), heparin, GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors, statins, digoxin, and drugs that elevate gastric pH, including proton pump inhibitors and H2 blockers [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
There are no data with Effient use in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. No structural malformations were observed in animal reproductive and developmental toxicology studies when rats and rabbits were administered prasugrel during organogenesis at doses of up to 30 times the recommended therapeutic exposures in humans [see Data]. Due to the mechanism of action of Effient, and the associated identified risk of bleeding, consider the benefits and risks of Effient and possible risks to the fetus when prescribing Effient to a pregnant woman [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3)].
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. The background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2-4% and of miscarriage is 15-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies.
In embryo-fetal developmental toxicology studies, pregnant rats and rabbits received prasugrel at maternally toxic oral doses equivalent to more than 40 times the human exposure. A slight decrease in fetal body weight was observed, but there were no structural malformations in either species. In prenatal and postnatal rat studies, maternal treatment with prasugrel had no effect on the behavioral or reproductive development of the offspring at doses greater than 150 times the human exposure.
There is no information regarding the presence of prasugrel in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Metabolites of prasugrel were found in rat milk [see Data]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Effient and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Effient or from the underlying maternal condition.
Following a 5 mg/kg oral dose of [14 C]-prasugrel to lactating rats, metabolites of prasugrel were detected in the maternal milk and blood.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the primary objective of reducing the rate of vaso-occlusive crisis (painful crisis or acute chest syndrome) in pediatric patients, aged 2 to less than 18 years, with sickle cell anemia was not met.
In TRITON-TIMI 38, 38.5% of patients were ≥65 years of age and 13.2% were ≥75 years of age. The risk of bleeding increased with advancing age in both treatment groups, although the relative risk of bleeding (Effient compared with clopidogrel) was similar across age groups.
Patients ≥75 years of age who received Effient 10 mg had an increased risk of fatal bleeding events (1.0%) compared to patients who received clopidogrel (0.1%). In patients ≥75 years of age, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 7 patients (0.8%) who received Effient and in 3 patients (0.3%) who received clopidogrel. Because of the risk of bleeding, and because effectiveness is uncertain in patients ≥75 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14)] , use of Effient is generally not recommended in these patients, except in high-risk situations (diabetes and past history of myocardial infarction) where its effect appears to be greater and its use may be considered [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14)].
In TRITON-TIMI 38, 4.6% of patients treated with Effient had body weight <60 kg. Individuals with body weight <60 kg had an increased risk of bleeding and an increased exposure to the active metabolite of prasugrel [see Dosage and Administration (2), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Consider lowering the maintenance dose to 5 mg in patients <60 kg. The effectiveness and safety of the 5 mg dose have not been prospectively studied [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with renal impairment. There is limited experience in patients with end-stage renal disease, but such patients are generally at higher risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B). The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel in patients with severe hepatic disease have not been studied, but such patients are generally at higher risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
In healthy subjects, patients with stable atherosclerosis, and patients with ACS receiving prasugrel, there was no relevant effect of genetic variation in CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP3A5 on the pharmacokinetics of prasugrel’s active metabolite or its inhibition of platelet aggregation.
Platelet inhibition by prasugrel is rapid and irreversible, lasting for the life of the platelet, and is unlikely to be increased in the event of an overdose. In rats, lethality was observed after administration of 2000 mg/kg. Symptoms of acute toxicity in dogs included emesis, increased serum alkaline phosphatase, and hepatocellular atrophy. Symptoms of acute toxicity in rats included mydriasis, irregular respiration, decreased locomotor activity, ptosis, staggering gait, and lacrimation.
Platelet transfusion may restore clotting ability. The prasugrel active metabolite is not likely to be removed by dialysis.
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