The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of immediate-release levetiracetam tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The listing is alphabetized: abnormal liver function test, acute kidney injury, anaphylaxis, angioedema, agranulocytosis, choreoathetosis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), dyskinesia, erythema multiforme, hepatic failure, hepatitis, hyponatremia, muscular weakness, pancreatitis, pancytopenia (with bone marrow suppression identified in some of these cases), panic attack, thrombocytopenia, weight loss and worsening of seizures. Alopecia has been reported with immediate-release levetiracetam tablet use; recovery was observed in majority of cases where immediate-release levetiracetam tablets were discontinued.
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including ELEPSIA XR, during pregnancy. Encourage women who are taking ELEPSIA XR during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) pregnancy registry by calling 1-888-233-2334 or visiting http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/.
Prolonged experience with levetiracetam in pregnant women has not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects or miscarriage, based on published literature, which includes data from pregnancy registries and reflects experience over two decades [see Human Data]. In animal studies, levetiracetam produced developmental toxicity (increased embryofetal and offspring mortality, increased incidences of fetal structural abnormalities, decreased embryofetal and offspring growth, neurobehavioral alterations in offspring) at doses similar to human therapeutic doses [see Animal Data].
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
Levetiracetam levels may decrease during pregnancy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect levetiracetam concentration. Decrease in levetiracetam plasma concentrations has been observed during pregnancy. This decrease is more pronounced during the third trimester. Dose adjustments may be necessary to maintain clinical response.
While available studies cannot definitively establish the absence of risk, data from the published literature and pregnancy registries have not established an association with levetiracetam use during pregnancy and major birth defects or miscarriage.
When levetiracetam (0, 400, 1200, or 3600 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis, reduced fetal weights and increased incidence of fetal skeletal variations were observed at the highest dose tested. There was no evidence of maternal toxicity. The no-effect dose for adverse effects on embryofetal development in rats (1200 mg/kg/day) is approximately 4 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 3000 mg on a body surface area (mg/m2) basis.
Oral administration of levetiracetam (0, 200, 600, or 1800 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rabbits during the period of organogenesis resulted in increased embryofetal mortality and incidence of fetal skeletal variations at the mid and high dose and decreased fetal weights and increased incidence of fetal malformations at the high dose, which was associated with maternal toxicity. The no-effect dose for adverse effects on embryofetal development in rabbits (200 mg/kg/day) is approximately equivalent to the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
Oral administration of levetiracetam (0, 70, 350, or 1800 mg/kg/day) to female rats throughout pregnancy and lactation led to an increased incidence of fetal skeletal variations, reduced fetal body weight, and decreased growth in offspring at the mid and high doses and increased pup mortality and neurobehavioral alterations in offspring at the highest dose tested. There was no evidence of maternal toxicity. The no-effect dose for adverse effects on pre- and postnatal development in rats (70 mg/kg/day) is less than the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
Oral administration of levetiracetam to rats during the latter part of gestation and throughout lactation produced no adverse developmental or maternal effects at doses of up to 1800 mg/kg/day (6 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis).
Levetiracetam is excreted in human milk. There are no data on the effects of ELEPSIA XR on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ELEPSIA XR and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ELEPSIA XR or from the underlying maternal condition.
Safety and effectiveness of ELEPSIA XR in pediatric patients 12 years of age and older has been established based on pharmacokinetic data in adults and adolescents using levetiracetam extended-release tablets and efficacy and safety data in controlled pediatric studies using immediate-release levetiracetam tablets [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14.1)].
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 12 years have not been established.
A 3-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to assess the neurocognitive and behavioral effects of immediate-release levetiracetam tablets as adjunctive therapy in 98 pediatric patients with inadequately controlled partial seizures, ages 4 to 16 years (levetiracetam N=64; placebo N=34). The target dose of immediate-release levetiracetam tablets was 60 mg/kg/day. Neurocognitive effects were measured by the Leiter-R Attention and Memory (AM) Battery, which assesses various aspects of a child’s memory and attention. Although no substantive differences were observed between the placebo-and levetiracetam-treated groups in the median change from baseline in this battery, the study was not adequate to assess formal statistical non-inferiority between the drug and placebo. The Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6-18), a standardized validated tool used to assess a child’s competencies and behavioral/emotional problems, was also assessed in this study. An analysis of the CBCL/6-18 indicated a worsening in aggressive behavior, one of the eight syndrome scores, in patients treated with levetiracetam [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Juvenile Animal Toxicity DataStudies of levetiracetam in juvenile rats (dosing from day 4 through day 52 of age) and dogs (dosing from week 3 through week 7 of age) at doses of up to 1,800 mg/kg/day (approximately 7 and 24 times, respectively, the maximum recommended pediatric dose of 60 mg/kg/day on a mg/m2 basis) did not indicate a potential for age-specific toxicity.
There were insufficient numbers of elderly subjects in controlled trials of epilepsy to adequately assess the effectiveness of levetiracetam extended-release tablets in these patients. It is expected that the safety of ELEPSIA XR in elderly patients 65 and over would be comparable to the safety observed in clinical studies of immediate-release levetiracetam tablets.
There were 347 subjects in clinical studies of immediate-release levetiracetam that were 65 and over. No overall differences in safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. There were insufficient numbers of elderly subjects in controlled trials of epilepsy to adequately assess the effectiveness of immediate-release levetiracetam tablets in these patients.
Levetiracetam is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Clearance of levetiracetam is decreased in patients with renal impairment and is correlated with creatinine clearance [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Dose adjustment is recommended for patients with mild renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. ELEPSIA XR is not recommended in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment. In patients with moderate or severe renal impairment, it is recommended that lower strength levetiracetam tablets be used instead of ELEPSIA XR.
In patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis, it is recommended that immediate-release levetiracetam tablets be used instead of ELEPSIA XR.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.