Less common adverse reactions in ELIQUIS-treated patients in the AMPLIFY or AMPLIFY-EXT studies occurring at a frequency of ≥0.1% to <1%:
Blood and lymphatic system disorders: hemorrhagic anemia
Gastrointestinal disorders: hematochezia, hemorrhoidal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hematemesis, melena, anal hemorrhage
Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications: wound hemorrhage, postprocedural hemorrhage, traumatic hematoma, periorbital hematoma
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: muscle hemorrhage
Reproductive system and breast disorders: vaginal hemorrhage, metrorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, genital hemorrhage
Vascular disorders: hemorrhage
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: ecchymosis, skin hemorrhage, petechiae
Eye disorders: conjunctival hemorrhage, retinal hemorrhage, eye hemorrhage
Investigations: blood urine present, occult blood positive, occult blood, red blood cells urine positive
General disorders and administration-site conditions: injection-site hematoma, vessel puncture-site hematoma
Apixaban is a substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp increase exposure to apixaban and increase the risk of bleeding. Inducers of CYP3A4 and P-gp decrease exposure to apixaban and increase the risk of stroke and other thromboembolic events.
For patients receiving ELIQUIS 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily, the dose of ELIQUIS should be decreased by 50% when coadministered with drugs that are combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir) [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
For patients receiving ELIQUIS at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily, avoid coadministration with combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Although clarithromycin is a combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, pharmacokinetic data suggest that no dose adjustment is necessary with concomitant administration with ELIQUIS [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Avoid concomitant use of ELIQUIS with combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, St. John’s wort) because such drugs will decrease exposure to apixaban [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Coadministration of antiplatelet agents, fibrinolytics, heparin, aspirin, and chronic NSAID use increases the risk of bleeding.
APPRAISE-2, a placebo-controlled clinical trial of ELIQUIS in high-risk, post-acute coronary syndrome patients treated with aspirin or the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel, was terminated early due to a higher rate of bleeding with ELIQUIS compared to placebo. The rate of ISTH major bleeding was 2.8% per year with ELIQUIS versus 0.6% per year with placebo in patients receiving single antiplatelet therapy and was 5.9% per year with ELIQUIS versus 2.5% per year with placebo in those receiving dual antiplatelet therapy.
In ARISTOTLE, concomitant use of aspirin increased the bleeding risk on ELIQUIS from 1.8% per year to 3.4% per year and concomitant use of aspirin and warfarin increased the bleeding risk from 2.7% per year to 4.6% per year. In this clinical trial, there was limited (2.3%) use of dual antiplatelet therapy with ELIQUIS.
The limited available data on ELIQUIS use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform drug-associated risks of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse developmental outcomes. Treatment may increase the risk of bleeding during pregnancy and delivery. In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were seen when apixaban was administered to rats (orally), rabbits (intravenously) and mice (orally) during organogenesis at unbound apixaban exposure levels up to 4, 1 and 19 times, respectively, the human exposure based on area under plasma-concentration time curve (AUC) at the Maximum Recommended Human Dose (MRHD) of 5 mg twice daily.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Pregnancy confers an increased risk of thromboembolism that is higher for women with underlying thromboembolic disease and certain high-risk pregnancy conditions. Published data describe that women with a previous history of venous thrombosis are at high risk for recurrence during pregnancy.
Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions
Use of anticoagulants, including ELIQUIS, may increase the risk of bleeding in the fetus and neonate.
Labor or delivery
All patients receiving anticoagulants, including pregnant women, are at risk for bleeding. ELIQUIS use during labor or delivery in women who are receiving neuraxial anesthesia may result in epidural or spinal hematomas. Consider use of a shorter acting anticoagulant as delivery approaches [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
No developmental toxicities were observed when apixaban was administered during organogenesis to rats (orally), rabbits (intravenously) and mice (orally) at unbound apixaban exposure levels 4, 1, and 19 times, respectively, the human exposures at the MRHD. There was no evidence of fetal bleeding, although conceptus exposure was confirmed in rats and rabbits. Oral administration of apixaban to rat dams from gestation day 6 through lactation day 21 at maternal unbound apixaban exposures ranging from 1.4 to 5 times the human exposures at the MRHD was not associated with reduced maternal mortality or reduced conceptus/neonatal viability, although increased incidences of peri-vaginal bleeding were observed in dams at all doses. There was no evidence of neonatal bleeding.
There are no data on the presence of apixaban or its metabolites in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. Apixaban and/or its metabolites were present in the milk of rats (see Data). Because human exposure through milk is unknown, breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with ELIQUIS.
Maximal plasma concentrations were observed after 30 minutes following a single oral administration of a 5 mg dose to lactating rats. Maximal milk concentrations were observed 6 hours after dosing. The milk to plasma AUC (0-24) ratio is 30:1 indicating that apixaban can accumulate in milk. The concentrations of apixaban in animal milk does not necessarily predict the concentration of drug in human milk.
Females of reproductive potential requiring anticoagulation should discuss pregnancy planning with their physician.
The risk of clinically significant uterine bleeding, potentially requiring gynecological surgical interventions, identified with oral anticoagulants including ELIQUIS should be assessed in females of reproductive potential and those with abnormal uterine bleeding.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the total subjects in the ARISTOTLE and AVERROES clinical studies, >69% were 65 years of age and older, and >31% were 75 years of age and older. In the ADVANCE-1, ADVANCE-2, and ADVANCE-3 clinical studies, 50% of subjects were 65 years of age and older, while 16% were 75 years of age and older. In the AMPLIFY and AMPLIFY-EXT clinical studies, >32% of subjects were 65 years of age and older and >13% were 75 years of age and older. No clinically significant differences in safety or effectiveness were observed when comparing subjects in different age groups.
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