The recommended dose is 2.5 mg twice daily in patients with at least two of the following characteristics [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]:
- age greater than or equal to 80 years
- body weight less than or equal to 60 kg
- serum creatinine greater than or equal to 1.5 mg/dL
Clinical efficacy and safety studies with ELIQUIS did not enroll patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis. In patients with ESRD maintained on intermittent hemodialysis, administration of ELIQUIS at the usually recommended dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)] will result in concentrations of apixaban and pharmacodynamic activity similar to those observed in the ARISTOTLE study [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. It is not known whether these concentrations will lead to similar stroke reduction and bleeding risk in patients with ESRD on dialysis as was seen in ARISTOTLE.
Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery, and Treatment of DVT and PE and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and PE
No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment, including those with ESRD on dialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Clinical efficacy and safety studies with ELIQUIS did not enroll patients with ESRD on dialysis or patients with a CrCl <15 mL/min; therefore, dosing recommendations are based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (anti-FXa activity) data in subjects with ESRD maintained on dialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A).
Because patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) may have intrinsic coagulation abnormalities and there is limited clinical experience with ELIQUIS in these patients, dosing recommendations cannot be provided [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
ELIQUIS is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Overdose of ELIQUIS increases the risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
In controlled clinical trials, orally administered apixaban in healthy subjects at doses up to 50 mg daily for 3 to 7 days (25 mg twice daily for 7 days or 50 mg once daily for 3 days) had no clinically relevant adverse effects.
In healthy subjects, administration of activated charcoal 2 and 6 hours after ingestion of a 20-mg dose of apixaban reduced mean apixaban AUC by 50% and 27%, respectively. Thus, administration of activated charcoal may be useful in the management of ELIQUIS overdose or accidental ingestion. An agent to reverse the anti-factor Xa activity of apixaban is available.
ELIQUIS (apixaban), a factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor, is chemically described as 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H -pyrazolo[3,4-c ]pyridine-3-carboxamide. Its molecular formula is C25 H25 N5 O4 , which corresponds to a molecular weight of 459.5. Apixaban has the following structural formula:
Apixaban is a white to pale-yellow powder. At physiological pH (1.2-6.8), apixaban does not ionize; its aqueous solubility across the physiological pH range is ~0.04 mg/mL.
ELIQUIS tablets are available for oral administration in strengths of 2.5 mg and 5 mg of apixaban with the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, sodium lauryl sulfate, and magnesium stearate. The film coating contains lactose monohydrate, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, triacetin, and yellow iron oxide (2.5 mg tablets) or red iron oxide (5 mg tablets).
Apixaban is a selective inhibitor of FXa. It does not require antithrombin III for antithrombotic activity. Apixaban inhibits free and clot-bound FXa, and prothrombinase activity. Apixaban has no direct effect on platelet aggregation, but indirectly inhibits platelet aggregation induced by thrombin. By inhibiting FXa, apixaban decreases thrombin generation and thrombus development.
As a result of FXa inhibition, apixaban prolongs clotting tests such as prothrombin time (PT), INR, and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Changes observed in these clotting tests at the expected therapeutic dose, however, are small, subject to a high degree of variability, and not useful in monitoring the anticoagulation effect of apixaban.
The Rotachrom® Heparin chromogenic assay was used to measure the effect of apixaban on FXa activity in humans during the apixaban development program. A concentration-dependent increase in anti-FXa activity was observed in the dose range tested and was similar in healthy subjects and patients with AF.
This test is not recommended for assessing the anticoagulant effect of apixaban.
There is no clinical experience to reverse bleeding with the use of 4-factor PCC products in individuals who have received ELIQUIS.
Effects of 4-factor PCCs on the pharmacodynamics of apixaban were studied in healthy subjects. Following administration of apixaban dosed to steady state, endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) returned to pre-apixaban levels 4 hours after the initiation of a 30-minute PCC infusion, compared to 45 hours with placebo. Mean ETP levels continued to increase and exceeded pre-apixaban levels reaching a maximum (34%-51% increase over pre-apixaban levels) at 21 hours after initiating PCC and remained elevated (21%-27% increase) at the end of the study (69 hours after initiation of PCC). The clinical relevance of this increase in ETP is unknown.
Pharmacodynamic drug interaction studies with aspirin, clopidogrel, aspirin and clopidogrel, prasugrel, enoxaparin, and naproxen were conducted. No pharmacodynamic interactions were observed with aspirin, clopidogrel, or prasugrel [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. A 50% to 60% increase in anti-FXa activity was observed when ELIQUIS was coadministered with enoxaparin or naproxen.
Renal impairment: Anti-FXa activity adjusted for exposure to apixaban was similar across renal function categories.
Hepatic impairment: Changes in anti-FXa activity were similar in patients with mild-to-moderate hepatic impairment and healthy subjects. However, in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, there is no clear understanding of the impact of this degree of hepatic function impairment on the coagulation cascade and its relationship to efficacy and bleeding. Patients with severe hepatic impairment were not studied.
Apixaban has no effect on the QTc interval in humans at doses up to 50 mg.
Apixaban demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics with dose-proportional increases in exposure for oral doses up to 10 mg.
The absolute bioavailability of apixaban is approximately 50% for doses up to 10 mg of ELIQUIS. Food does not affect the bioavailability of apixaban. Maximum concentrations (Cmax ) of apixaban appear 3 to 4 hours after oral administration of ELIQUIS. At doses ≥25 mg, apixaban displays dissolution-limited absorption with decreased bioavailability. Following oral administration of 10 mg of apixaban as 2 crushed 5 mg tablets suspended in 30 mL of water, exposure was similar to that after oral administration of 2 intact 5 mg tablets. Following oral administration of 10 mg of apixaban as 2 crushed 5 mg tablets mixed with 30 g of applesauce, the Cmax and AUC were 20% and 16% lower, respectively, when compared to administration of 2 intact 5 mg tablets. Following administration of a crushed 5 mg ELIQUIS tablet that was suspended in 60 mL D5W and delivered through a nasogastric tube, exposure was similar to that seen in other clinical trials involving healthy volunteers receiving a single oral 5 mg tablet dose.
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