ENALAPRIL MALEATE (Page 4 of 6)

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

There was no evidence of a tumorigenic effect when enalapril was administered for 106 weeks to male and female rats at doses up to 90 mg/kg/day or for 94 weeks to male and female mice at doses up to 90 and 180 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are 26 times (in rats and female mice) and 13 times (in male mice) the maximum recommended human daily dose (MRHDD) when compared on a body surface area basis.
Neither enalapril maleate nor the active diacid was mutagenic in the Ames microbial mutagen test with or without metabolic activation. Enalapril was also negative in the following genotoxicity studies: rec-assay, reverse mutation assay with E.coli, sister chromatid exchange with cultured mammalian cells, and the micronucleus test with mice, as well as in an in vivo cytogenic study using mouse bone marrow.
There were no adverse effects on reproductive performance of male and female rats treated with up to 90 mg/kg/day of enalapril (26 times the MRHDD when compared on a body surface area basis).

Pregnancy

Nursing Mothers

Enalapril and enalaprilat have been detected in human breast milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from enalapril, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue enalapril maleate, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to enalapril Maleate

If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. Enalapril, which crosses the placenta, has been removed from neonatal circulation by peritoneal dialysis with some clinical benefit, and theoretically may be removed by exchange transfusion, although there is no experience with the latter procedure.

Antihypertensive effects of enalapril maleate have been established in hypertensive pediatric patients age 1 month to 16 years. Use of enalapril maleate in these age groups is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of enalapril maleate in pediatric and adult patients as well as by published literature in pediatric patients (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Clinical Pharmacology in Pediatric Patients and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Enalapril maleate is not recommended in neonates and in pediatric patients with glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , as no data are available.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Enalapril maleate has been evaluated for safety in more than 10,000 patients, including over 1000 patients treated for one year or more. Enalapril maleate has been found to be generally well tolerated in conrolled clinical trials involving 2987 patients. For the most part, adverse experiences were mild and transient in nature. In clinical trials, discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse experiences was required in 3.3 percent of patients with hypertension and in 5.7 percent of patients with heart failure. The frequency of adverse experiences was not related to total daily dosage within the usual dosage ranges. In patients with hypertension the overall percentage of patients treated with enalapril maleate reporting adverse experiences was comparable to placebo.

Hypertension

Adverse experiences occurring in greater than one percent of patients with hypertension treated with enalapril maleate in controlled clinical trials are shown below. In patients treated with enalapril maleate, the maximum duration of therapy was three years; in placebo-treated patients the maximum duration of therapy was 12 weeks.

Enalapril Maleate (n=2314) Incidence (discontinuation) Placebo (n=230) Incidence
Body As A Whole
Fatigue 3.0 (<0.1) 2.6
Orthostatic Effects 1.2 (<0.1) 0.0
Asthenia 1.1 (0.1) 0.9
Digestive
Diarrhea 1.4 (<0.1) 1.7
Nausea 1.4 (0.2) 1.7
Nervous/Psychiatric
Headache 5.2 (0.3) 9.1
Dizziness 4.3 (0.4) 4.3
Respiratory
Cough 1.3 (0.1) 0.9
Skin
Rash 1.4 (0.4) 0.4

Heart Failure

Adverse experiences occurring in greater than one percent of patients with heart failure treated with enalapril maleate are shown below. The incidences represent the experiences from both controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials (maximum duration of therapy was approximately one year). In the placebo-treated patients, the incidences reported are from the controlled trials (maximum duration of therapy is 12 weeks). The percentage of patients with severe heart failure (NYHA Class IV) was 29 percent and 43 percent for patients treated with enalapril maleate and placebo, respectively.

Enalapril Maleate (n=673) Incidence (discontinuation) Placebo (n=339) Incidence
Body As A Whole
Orthostatic Effects 2.2 (0.1) 0.3
Syncope 2.2 (0.1) 0.9
Chest Pain 2.1 (0.0) 2.1
Fatigue 1.8 (0.0) 1.8
Abdominal Pain 1.6 (0.4) 2.1
Asthenia 1.6 (0.1) 0.3
Cardiovascular
Hypotension 6.7 (1.9) 0.6
Orthostatic Hypotension 1.6 (0.1) 0.3
Angina Pectoris 1.5 (0.1) 1.8
Myocardial Infarction 1.2 (0.3) 1.8
Digestive
Diarrhea 2.1 (0.1) 1.2
Nausea 1.3 (0.1) 0.6
Vomiting 1.3 (0.0) 0.9
Nervous/Psychiatric
Dizziness 7.9 (0.6) 0.6
Headache 1.8 (0.1) 0.9
Vertigo 1.6 (0.1) 1.2
Respiratory
Cough 2.2 (0.0) 0.6
Bronchitis 1.3 (0.0) 0.9
Dyspnea 1.3 (0.1) 0.4
Pneumonia 1.0 (0.0) 2.4
Skin
Rash 1.3 (0.0) 2.4
Urogenital
Urinary Tract Infection 1.3 (0.0) 2.4

Other serious clinical adverse experiences occurring since the drug was marketed or adverse experiences occurring in 0.5 to 1.0 percent of patients with hypertension or heart failure in clinical trials are listed below and, within each category, are in order of decreasing severity.
Body As A Whole: Anaphylactoid reactions (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid and Possibly Related Reactions).

Cardiovascular: Cardiac arrest; myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident, possibly secondary to excessive hypotension in high risk patients (see WARNINGS, Hypotension); pulmonary embolism and infarction; pulmonary edema; rhythm disturbances including atrial tachycardia and bradycardia; atrial fibrillation; palpitation, Raynaud’s phenomenon.
Digestive: Ileus, pancreatitis, hepatic failure, hepatitis (hepatocellular [proven on rechallenge] or cholestatic jaundice) (see WARNINGS, Hepatic Failure), melena, anorexia, dyspepsia, constipation, glossitis, stomatitis, dry mouth.
Hematologic: Rare cases of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and bone marrow depression.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle cramps.
Nervous/Psychiatric: Depression, confusion, ataxia, somnolence, insomnia, nervousness, peripheral neuropathy (e.g., paresthesia, dysesthesia), dream abnormality.
Respiratory: Bronchospasm, rhinorrhea, sore throat and hoarseness, asthma, upper respiratory infection, pulmonary infiltrates, eosinophilic pneumonitis.
Skin: Exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, pemphigus, herpes zoster, erythema multiforme, urticaria, pruritus, alopecia, flushing, diaphoresis, photosensitivity.
Special Senses: Blurred vision, taste alteration, anosmia, tinnitus, conjunctivitis, dry eyes, tearing.
Urogenital: Renal failure, oliguria, renal dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), flank pain, gynecomastia, impotence.
Miscellaneous: A symptom complex has been reported which may include some or all of the following: a positive ANA, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia/myositis, fever, serositis, vasculitis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, photosensitivity, rash and other dermatologic manifestations.
Angioedema: Angioedema has been reported in patients receiving enalapril maleate with an incidence higher in black than in non-black patients. Angioedema associated with laryngeal edema may be fatal. If angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx occurs, treatment with enalapril maleate should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted immediately (see WARNINGS, Head and Neck Angioedema).
Hypotension: In the hypertensive patients, hypotension occurred in 0.9 percent and syncope occurred in 0.5 percent of patients following the initial dose or during extended therapy. Hypotension or syncope was a cause for discontinuation of Therapy in 0.1 percent of hypertensive patients. In heart failure patients, hypotension occurred in 6.7 percent and syncope occurred in 2.2 percent of patients. Hypotension or syncope was a cause for discontinuation of therapy in 1.9 percent of patients with heart failure (see WARNINGS, Hypotension).
Cough: See PRECAUTIONS, Cough.

Pediatric Patients

The adverse experience profile for pediatric patients appears to be similar to that seen in adult patients.

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