Prior to initiating Enbrel and periodically during therapy, patients should be evaluated for active tuberculosis and tested for latent infection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- Injection: 25 mg/0.5 mL and 50 mg/mL clear, colorless solution in a single-dose prefilled syringe
- Injection: 50 mg/mL clear, colorless solution in a single-dose prefilled SureClick autoinjector
- Injection: 25 mg/0.5 mL clear, colorless solution in a single-dose vial
- For Injection: 25 mg lyophilized powder in a multiple-dose vial for reconstitution
- Injection: 50 mg/mL clear, colorless solution in Enbrel Mini single-dose prefilled cartridge for use with the AutoTouch reusable autoinjector only
Enbrel should not be administered to patients with sepsis.
Patients treated with Enbrel are at increased risk for developing serious infections involving various organ systems and sites that may lead to hospitalization or death.
Opportunistic infections due to bacterial, mycobacterial, invasive fungal, viral, parasitic, or other opportunistic pathogens including aspergillosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, legionellosis, listeriosis, pneumocystosis, and tuberculosis have been reported with TNF-blockers. Patients have frequently presented with disseminated rather than localized disease.
Treatment with Enbrel should not be initiated in patients with an active infection, including clinically important localized infections. Patients greater than 65 years of age, patients with co-morbid conditions, and/or patients taking concomitant immunosuppressants (such as corticosteroids or methotrexate), may be at greater risk of infection. The risks and benefits of treatment should be considered prior to initiating therapy in patients:
- With chronic or recurrent infection;
- Who have been exposed to tuberculosis;
- With a history of an opportunistic infection;
- Who have resided or traveled in areas of endemic tuberculosis or endemic mycoses, such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, or blastomycosis; or
- With underlying conditions that may predispose them to infection, such as advanced or poorly controlled diabetes [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Patients should be closely monitored for the development of signs and symptoms of infection during and after treatment with Enbrel.
Enbrel should be discontinued if a patient develops a serious infection or sepsis. A patient who develops a new infection during treatment with Enbrel should be closely monitored, undergo a prompt and complete diagnostic workup appropriate for an immunocompromised patient, and appropriate antimicrobial therapy should be initiated.
Cases of reactivation of tuberculosis or new tuberculosis infections have been observed in patients receiving Enbrel, including patients who have previously received treatment for latent or active tuberculosis. Data from clinical trials and preclinical studies suggest that the risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection is lower with Enbrel than with TNF-blocking monoclonal antibodies. Nonetheless, postmarketing cases of tuberculosis reactivation have been reported for TNF-blockers, including Enbrel. Tuberculosis has developed in patients who tested negative for latent tuberculosis prior to initiation of therapy. Patients should be evaluated for tuberculosis risk factors and tested for latent infection prior to initiating Enbrel and periodically during therapy. Tests for latent tuberculosis infection may be falsely negative while on therapy with Enbrel.
Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection prior to therapy with TNF-blocking agents has been shown to reduce the risk of tuberculosis reactivation during therapy. Induration of 5 mm or greater with tuberculin skin testing should be considered a positive test result when assessing if treatment for latent tuberculosis is needed prior to initiating Enbrel, even for patients previously vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).
Anti-tuberculosis therapy should also be considered prior to initiation of Enbrel in patients with a past history of latent or active tuberculosis in whom an adequate course of treatment cannot be confirmed, and for patients with a negative test for latent tuberculosis but having risk factors for tuberculosis infection. Consultation with a physician with expertise in the treatment of tuberculosis is recommended to aid in the decision whether initiating anti-tuberculosis therapy is appropriate for an individual patient.
Tuberculosis should be strongly considered in patients who develop a new infection during Enbrel treatment, especially in patients who have previously or recently traveled to countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, or who have had close contact with a person with active tuberculosis.
Invasive Fungal Infections
Cases of serious and sometimes fatal fungal infections, including histoplasmosis, have been reported with TNF-blockers, including Enbrel. For patients who reside or travel in regions where mycoses are endemic, invasive fungal infection should be suspected if they develop a serious systemic illness. Appropriate empiric anti-fungal therapy should be considered while a diagnostic workup is being performed. Antigen and antibody testing for histoplasmosis may be negative in some patients with active infection. When feasible, the decision to administer empiric anti-fungal therapy in these patients should be made in consultation with a physician with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal infections and should take into account both the risk for severe fungal infection and the risks of anti-fungal therapy. In 38 Enbrel clinical trials and 4 cohort studies in all approved indications representing 27,169 patient-years of exposure (17,696 patients) from the United States and Canada, no histoplasmosis infections were reported among patients treated with Enbrel.
Treatment with TNF-blocking agents, including Enbrel, has been associated with rare (< 0.1%) cases of new onset or exacerbation of central nervous system demyelinating disorders, some presenting with mental status changes and some associated with permanent disability, and with peripheral nervous system demyelinating disorders. Cases of transverse myelitis, optic neuritis, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndromes, other peripheral demyelinating neuropathies, and new onset or exacerbation of seizure disorders have been reported in postmarketing experience with Enbrel therapy. Prescribers should exercise caution in considering the use of Enbrel in patients with preexisting or recent-onset central or peripheral nervous system demyelinating disorders [see Postmarketing Experience (6.3)].
In the controlled portions of clinical trials of TNF-blocking agents, more cases of lymphoma have been observed among patients receiving a TNF-blocker compared to control patients. During the controlled portions of Enbrel trials in adult patients with RA, AS, and PsA, 2 lymphomas were observed among 3306 Enbrel-treated patients versus 0 among 1521 control patients (duration of controlled treatment ranged from 3 to 36 months).
Among 6543 adult rheumatology (RA, PsA, AS) patients treated with Enbrel in controlled and uncontrolled portions of clinical trials, representing approximately 12,845 patient-years of therapy, the observed rate of lymphoma was 0.10 cases per 100 patient-years. This was 3-fold higher than the rate of lymphoma expected in the general U.S. population based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Database. An increased rate of lymphoma up to several-fold has been reported in the RA patient population, and may be further increased in patients with more severe disease activity.
Among 4410 adult PsO patients treated with Enbrel in clinical trials up to 36 months, representing approximately 4278 patient-years of therapy, the observed rate of lymphoma was 0.05 cases per 100 patient-years, which is comparable to the rate in the general population. No cases were observed in Enbrel- or placebo-treated patients during the controlled portions of these trials.
Cases of acute and chronic leukemia have been reported in association with postmarketing TNF-blocker use in rheumatoid arthritis and other indications. Even in the absence of TNF-blocker therapy, patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be at higher risk (approximately 2-fold) than the general population for the development of leukemia.
During the controlled portions of Enbrel trials, 2 cases of leukemia were observed among 5445 (0.06 cases per 100 patient-years) Enbrel-treated patients versus 0 among 2890 (0%) control patients (duration of controlled treatment ranged from 3 to 48 months).
Among 15,401 patients treated with Enbrel in controlled and open portions of clinical trials representing approximately 23,325 patient-years of therapy, the observed rate of leukemia was 0.03 cases per 100 patient-years.
Information is available from 10,953 adult patients with 17,123 patient-years and 696 pediatric patients with 1282 patient-years of experience across 45 Enbrel clinical studies.
For malignancies other than lymphoma and non-melanoma skin cancer, there was no difference in exposure-adjusted rates between the Enbrel and control arms in the controlled portions of clinical studies for all indications. Analysis of the malignancy rate in combined controlled and uncontrolled portions of studies has demonstrated that types and rates are similar to what is expected in the general U.S. population based on the SEER database and suggests no increase in rates over time. Whether treatment with Enbrel might influence the development and course of malignancies in adults is unknown.
Melanoma and Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC)
Melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer has been reported in patients treated with TNF antagonists including etanercept.
Among 15,401 patients treated with Enbrel in controlled and open portions of clinical trials representing approximately 23,325 patient-years of therapy, the observed rate of melanoma was 0.043 cases per 100 patient-years.
Among 3306 adult rheumatology (RA, PsA, AS) patients treated with Enbrel in controlled clinical trials representing approximately 2669 patient-years of therapy, the observed rate of NMSC was 0.41 cases per 100 patient-years versus 0.37 cases per 100 patient-years among 1521 control-treated patients representing 1077 patient-years. Among 1245 adult PsO patients treated with Enbrel in controlled clinical trials, representing approximately 283 patient-years of therapy, the observed rate of NMSC was 3.54 cases per 100 patient-years versus 1.28 cases per 100 patient-years among 720 control-treated patients representing 156 patient-years.
Postmarketing cases of Merkel cell carcinoma have been reported very infrequently in patients treated with Enbrel.
Periodic skin examinations should be considered for all patients at increased risk for skin cancer.
Malignancies, some fatal, have been reported among children, adolescents, and young adults who received treatment with TNF-blocking agents (initiation of therapy at ≤ 18 years of age), including Enbrel. Approximately half the cases were lymphomas, including Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The other cases represented a variety of different malignancies and included rare malignancies usually associated with immunosuppression and malignancies that are not usually observed in children and adolescents. The malignancies occurred after a median of 30 months of therapy (range 1 to 84 months). Most of the patients were receiving concomitant immunosuppressants. These cases were reported postmarketing and are derived from a variety of sources, including registries and spontaneous postmarketing reports.
In clinical trials of 1140 pediatric patients representing 1927.2 patient-years of therapy, no malignancies, including lymphoma or NMSC, have been reported.
In global postmarketing adult and pediatric use, lymphoma and other malignancies have been reported.
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