Enhertu (Page 5 of 8)

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki is a HER2-directed antibody-drug conjugate. The antibody is a humanized anti-HER2 IgG1. The small molecule, DXd, is a topoisomerase I inhibitor attached to the antibody by a cleavable linker. Following binding to HER2 on tumor cells, fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki undergoes internalization and intracellular linker cleavage by lysosomal enzymes. Upon release, the membrane-permeable DXd causes DNA damage and apoptotic cell death.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Cardiac Electrophysiology

The administration of multiple doses of ENHERTU 6.4 mg/kg every 3 weeks did not show a large mean effect (i.e. >20 ms) on the QTc interval in an open-label, single-arm study in 51 patients with metastatic HER2-positive cancer.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki was evaluated in patients with cancer. Following a single dose, exposures (Cmax and AUC) of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki and released topoisomerase inhibitor (DXd) increased proportionally over a dose range of 3.2 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg (approximately 0.6 to 1.5 times the recommended dose).

Metastatic Breast Cancer

At the recommended dosage of ENHERTU for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, the geometric mean (coefficient of variation [CV]%) Cmax of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki and DXd were 131 µg/mL (20%) and 4.4 ng/mL (41%), respectively, and the AUC of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki and DXd were 769 µg∙day/mL (28%) and 27 ng∙day/mL (40%), respectively, based on population pharmacokinetic analysis. Accumulation of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki was approximately 35% at steady-state (Cycle 3).

Locally Advanced or Metastatic Gastric Cancer

At the recommended dosage of ENHERTU for patients with HER2-positive gastric cancer, the geometric mean Cmax,ss of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki and DXd were 126 µg/mL (18%) and 5.2 ng/mL (42%), respectively, and the AUCss of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki and DXd were 743 µg∙day/mL (26%) and 33 ng∙day/mL (43%), respectively, based on population pharmacokinetic analysis. Accumulation of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki was approximately 39% at steady-state (Cycle 3).

Distribution

Based on population pharmacokinetic analysis, the estimated volume of distribution of the central compartment (Vc ) of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki was 2.71 L.

For humans, DXd plasma protein binding is approximately 97% and the blood-to-plasma ratio is approximately 0.6, in vitro.

Elimination

The median elimination half-life (t1/2 ) of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and gastric cancer was approximately 5.7-5.8 days. Based on population pharmacokinetic analysis, the estimated systemic clearance of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki was 0.42 L/day.

The median apparent elimination half-life (t1/2 ) of DXd in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and gastric cancer was approximately 5.5-5.8 days. Based on population pharmacokinetic analysis, the estimated apparent systemic clearance of DXd was 19.4 L/h.

Metabolism

The humanized HER2 IgG1 monoclonal antibody is expected to be degraded into small peptides and amino acids via catabolic pathways in the same manner as endogenous IgG.

In vitro, DXd is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4.

Specific Populations

No clinically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki or DXd were observed for age (20-96 years), race (Asian [n=759], White [n=449], Black or African American [n=30] and Other [n=69]), sex, body weight (27.3-125.4 kg), mild (total bilirubin ≤ULN and any AST >ULN or total bilirubin >1 to 1.5 times ULN and any AST, n=385) hepatic impairment, mild (creatinine clearance [CLcr] ≥60 and <90 mL/min, n=529) or moderate (CLcr ≥30 and <60 mL/min, n=210) renal impairment based on population pharmacokinetic analysis.

The pharmacokinetics of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki or DXd in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment (total bilirubin >1.5 ULN with any AST) or severe renal impairment (CLcr <30 mL/min) is unknown.

Drug Interaction Studies

Clinical Studies

Effect of CYP3A Inhibitors on DXd: Coadministration of itraconazole, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, with multiple doses of ENHERTU increased steady state AUC0-17 days of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki by 11% and DXd by 18%. The impact of these changes is not clinically meaningful.

Effect of OATP Inhibitors on DXd: Coadministration of ritonavir, a dual inhibitor of OATP1B/CYP3A, with multiple doses of ENHERTU increased steady state AUC0-17 days of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki by 19% and DXd by 22%. The impact of these changes is not clinically meaningful.

In Vitro Studies

Effects of DXd on CYP Enzymes: DXd does not inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A nor induce CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP3A.

Effects of DXd on Transporters: At clinically relevant concentrations (steady-state Cmax of ~0.2 µmol/L), DXd has a low potential to inhibit OAT1 (IC50 value of 12.7 µmol/L), OAT3, OCT1, OCT2, OATP1B1 (IC50 value of 14.4 μmol/L), OATP1B3, MATE1, MATE2-K, P-gp, BCRP, or BSEP transporters.

Effects of Other Drugs on DXd: DXd is a substrate of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, MATE2-K, P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki.

The topoisomerase inhibitor component of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki, DXd, was clastogenic in both an in vivo rat bone marrow micronucleus assay and an in vitro Chinese hamster lung chromosome aberration assay and was not mutagenic in an in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay.

Fertility studies have not been conducted with fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki. In a six-week repeat-dose toxicity study in rats, intravenous administration of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki resulted in spermatid retention at 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg (approximately 4 and 9 times the human recommended dose of 5.4 mg/kg based on AUC, respectively). Decreased testes and epididymides weights, tubular atrophy/degeneration in testes, and reduced sperm count in epididymides were observed at a dose of 197 mg/kg (19 times the human recommended dose of 5.4 mg/kg based on AUC). In a three-month repeat-dose toxicity study in monkeys, intravenous administration of fam-trastuzumab deruxtecan-nxki resulted in decreased numbers of round spermatids in the testes at seminiferous tubule stages V to VI at ≥30 mg/kg (≥7 times the human recommended dose of 5.4 mg/kg based on AUC). Evidence of reversibility was observed in monkeys by the end of a three-month recovery period.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Metastatic Breast Cancer

DESTINY-Breast03

The efficacy of ENHERTU was evaluated in study DESTINY-Breast03 (NCT03529110), a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial that enrolled 524 patients with HER2-positive, unresectable and/or metastatic breast cancer who received prior trastuzumab and taxane therapy for metastatic disease or developed disease recurrence during or within 6 months of completing adjuvant therapy. HER2 expression was based on archival tissue tested at a central laboratory prior to enrollment with HER2 positivity defined as HER2 IHC 3+ or ISH positive. Patients were excluded for a history of ILD/pneumonitis requiring treatment with steroids, ILD/pneumonitis at screening, or clinically significant cardiac disease. Patients were also excluded for untreated and symptomatic brain metastases, ECOG performance status >1, or prior treatment with an anti-HER2 antibody-drug conjugate in the metastatic setting.

Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either ENHERTU 5.4 mg/kg (N=261) or ado-trastuzumab emtansine 3.6 mg/kg (N=263) by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. Randomization was stratified by hormone receptor status, prior treatment with pertuzumab, and visceral versus non-visceral disease. Tumor imaging was obtained every 6 weeks and CT/MRI of the brain was mandatory for all patients at baseline. The major efficacy outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS) as assessed by blinded independent central review (BICR) based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v.1.1 and overall survival (OS). Confirmed objective response rate (ORR) was an additional outcome measure.

The median age was 54 years (range: 20-83); 80% were <65 years and 99.6% were female. The majority of patients were Asian (60%), White (27%) and Black (3.6%). Eleven percent (11%) of patients were of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Patients had an ECOG performance status of 0 (63%) or 1 (37%) at baseline. Seventy-three percent had visceral disease, 16% had brain metastases at baseline, 52% were hormone receptor positive and 48% of patients had received one line of prior systemic therapy in the metastatic setting. The percentage of patients who had not received prior treatment for metastatic disease was 10%.

Efficacy results are summarized in Table 9 and Figure 1. At the time of the PFS analysis, 16% of patients had died and overall survival (OS) was immature.

Table 9: Efficacy Results in DESTINY-Breast03
Efficacy ParameterENHERTU5.4 mg/kgAdo-trastuzumab emtansine3.6 mg/kg
CI = confidence interval; NR = not reached; NE=not estimable
*
Analysis was performed based on the patients with measurable disease assessed by BICR at baseline.
Progression-Free Survival (PFS) per BICR
N261263
Number of events (%)87 (33.3)158 (60.1)
Median, months (95% CI)NR (18.5, NE)6.8 (5.6, 8.2)
Hazard ratio (95% CI)0.28 (0.22, 0.37)
p-valuep< 0.0001
Confirmed Objective Response Rate (ORR) per BICR *
N248241
n (%)205 (82.7)87 (36.1)
95% CI(77.4, 87.2)(30.0, 42.5)
Complete Response n (%)39 (15.7)20 (8.3)
Partial Response n (%)166 (66.9)67 (27.8)
Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier Plot of Progression-Free Survival per BICR (Intent-to-Treat Analysis Set)
Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)

DESTINY-Breast01

The efficacy of ENHERTU was evaluated in study DESTINY-Breast01 (NCT03248492), a multicenter, single-arm, trial that enrolled 184 female patients with HER2-positive, unresectable and/or metastatic breast cancer who had received two or more prior anti-HER2 therapies. Patients were excluded for a history of treated ILD or current ILD at screening. Patients were also excluded for history of clinically significant cardiac disease, active brain metastases, and ECOG performance status >1. HER2 expression was based on archival tissue tested at a central laboratory prior to enrollment with HER2 positivity defined as HER2 IHC 3+ or ISH positive.

Patients received ENHERTU 5.4 mg/kg by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. Tumor imaging was obtained every 6 weeks and CT/MRI of the brain was mandatory for patients with brain metastases at baseline. The major efficacy outcomes were confirmed objective response rate (ORR) assessed by independent central review (ICR) using RECIST v1.1 and duration of response (DOR).

The median age was 55 years (range: 28-96); 76% of patients were <65 years. All 184 patients were female, and the majority were White (55%) or Asian (38%). Patients had an ECOG performance status of 0 (55%) or 1 (44%) at baseline. Ninety-two percent had visceral disease, 29% had bone metastases, and 13% had brain metastases. Fifty-three percent were hormone receptor positive. Sum of diameters of target lesions were <5 cm in 42%, and ≥5 cm in 50% (not evaluable by central review in 8% of patients).

The median number of prior cancer regimens in the locally advanced/metastatic setting was 5 (range: 2-17). All patients received prior trastuzumab, ado-trastuzumab emtansine, and 66% had prior pertuzumab.

Efficacy results are summarized in Table 10.

Table 10: Efficacy Results by Independent Central Review in DESTINY-Breast01
Efficacy Parameter DESTINY-Breast01N=184
ORR 95% CI calculated using Clopper-Pearson method
*
DOR is based on median duration of follow-up of 11.1 months.
Median DOR based on Kaplan-Meier estimate; 95% CI calculated using Brookmeyer-Crowley method
Confirmed Objective Response Rate (95% CI) 60.3% (52.9, 67.4)
Complete Response 4.3%
Partial Response 56.0%
Duration of Response * Median, months (95% CI) 14.8 (13.8, 16.9)

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