Enoxaparin Sodium

ENOXAPARIN SODIUM- enoxaparin sodium injection
NorthStar Rx LLC

WARNING: SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMAS

Epidural or spinal hematomas may occur in patients who are anticoagulated with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) or heparinoids and are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include:

  • Use of indwelling epidural catheters
  • Concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, and other anticoagulants
  • A history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures
  • A history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery
  • Optimal timing between the administration of enoxaparin sodium injection and neuraxial procedures is not known

Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary.

Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis

Enoxaparin Sodium Injection is indicated for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE):

  • in patients undergoing abdominal surgery who are at risk for thromboembolic complications [see Clinical Studies (14.1)]
  • in patients undergoing hip replacement surgery, during and following hospitalization
  • in patients undergoing knee replacement surgery
  • in medical patients who are at risk for thromboembolic complications due to severely restricted mobility during acute illness

1.2 Treatment of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

Enoxaparin Sodium Injection is indicated for:

  • the inpatient treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism , when administered in conjunction with warfarin sodium
  • the outpatient treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis without pulmonary embolism when administered in conjunction with warfarin sodium

1.3 Prophylaxis of Ischemic Complications of Unstable Angina and Non-Q-Wave Myocardial Infarction

Enoxaparin Sodium Injection is indicated for the prophylaxis of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, when concurrently administered with aspirin.

1.4 Treatment of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Enoxaparin Sodium Injection, when administered concurrently with aspirin, has been shown to reduce the rate of the combined endpoint of recurrent myocardial infarction or death in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) receiving thrombolysis and being managed medically or with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Pretreatment Evaluation

Evaluate all patients for a bleeding disorder before starting enoxaparin sodium injection treatment, unless treatment is urgently needed.

2.2 Adult Dosage

Abdominal Surgery

The recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium injection is 40 mg by subcutaneous injection once a day (with the initial dose given 2 hours prior to surgery) in patients undergoing abdominal surgery who are at risk for thromboembolic complications. The usual duration of administration is 7 to 10 days [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].

Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery

The recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium injection is 30 mg every 12 hours administered by subcutaneous injection in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery. Administer the initial dose 12 to 24 hours after surgery, provided that hemostasis has been established. The usual duration of administration is 7 to 10 days [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

A dose of enoxaparin sodium injection of 40 mg once a day subcutaneously may be considered for hip replacement surgery for up to 3 weeks. Administer the initial dose 12 (±3) hours prior to surgery.

Medical Patients During Acute Illness

The recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium injection is 40 mg once a day administered by subcutaneous injection for medical patients at risk for thromboembolic complications due to severely restricted mobility during acute illness. The usual duration of administration is 6 to 11 days [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].

Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis with or without Pulmonary Embolism

The recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium injection is 1 mg/kg every 12 hours administered subcutaneously in patients with acute deep vein thrombosis without pulmonary embolism, who can be treated at home in an outpatient setting.

The recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium injection is 1 mg/kg every 12 hours administered subcutaneously or 1.5 mg/kg once a day administered subcutaneously at the same time every day for inpatient (hospital) treatment of patients with acute deep vein thrombosis with pulmonary embolism or patients with acute deep vein thrombosis without pulmonary embolism (who are not candidates for outpatient treatment).

In both outpatient and inpatient (hospital) treatments, initiate warfarin sodium therapy when appropriate (usually within 72 hours of enoxaparin sodium injection). Continue enoxaparin sodium injection for a minimum of 5 days and until a therapeutic oral anticoagulant effect has been achieved (International Normalization Ratio 2 to 3). The average duration of administration is 7 days [see Clinical Studies (14.4)].

Unstable Angina and Non-Q-Wave Myocardial Infarction

The recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium injection is 1 mg/kg administered subcutaneously every 12 hours in conjunction with oral aspirin therapy (100 to 325 mg once daily) in patients with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Treat with enoxaparin sodium injection for a minimum of 2 days and continue until clinical stabilization. The usual duration of treatment is 2 to 8 days [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Studies (14.5)].

Treatment of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

The recommended dose of enoxaparin sodium injection is a single intravenous bolus of 30 mg plus a 1 mg/kg subcutaneous dose followed by 1 mg/kg administered subcutaneously every 12 hours (maximum 100 mg for the first two doses only, followed by 1 mg/kg dosing for the remaining doses) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Reduce the dosage in patients ≥75 years of age [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Unless contraindicated, administer aspirin to all patients as soon as they are identified as having STEMI and continue dosing with 75 to 325 mg once daily.

When administered in conjunction with a thrombolytic (fibrin specific or non–fibrin specific), administer enoxaparin sodium injection between 15 minutes before and 30 minutes after the start of fibrinolytic therapy. The usual duration of enoxaparin sodium injection therapy is 8 days or until hospital discharge.

For patients managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), if the last enoxaparin sodium injection subcutaneous administration was given less than 8 hours before balloon inflation, no additional dosing is needed. If the last enoxaparin sodium injection subcutaneous administration was given more than 8 hours before balloon inflation, administer an intravenous bolus of 0.3 mg/kg of enoxaparin sodium injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

2.3 Dose Reduction for Patients with Severe Renal Impairment

The recommended prophylaxis and treatment dosage regimens for patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) are described in Table 1 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Table 1: Dosage Regimens for Patients with Severe Renal Impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/minute)
Indication Dosage Regimen
Prophylaxis in abdominal surgery 30 mg administered subcutaneously once daily
Prophylaxis in hip or knee replacement surgery 30 mg administered subcutaneously once daily
Prophylaxis in medical patients during acute illness 30 mg administered subcutaneously once daily
Inpatient treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, when administered in conjunction with warfarin sodium 1 mg/kg administered subcutaneously once daily
Outpatient treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis without pulmonary embolism, when administered in conjunction with warfarin sodium 1 mg/kg administered subcutaneously once daily
Prophylaxis of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, when concurrently administered with aspirin 1 mg/kg administered subcutaneously once daily
Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in patients <75 years of age, when administered in conjunction with aspirin 30 mg single intravenous bolus plus a 1 mg/kg subcutaneous dose followed by 1 mg/kg administered subcutaneously once daily
Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in geriatric patients ≥75 years of age, when administered in conjunction with aspirin 1 mg/kg administered subcutaneously once daily (no initial bolus)

Although no dose adjustment is recommended in patients with creatinine clearance 30 to 50 mL/min and creatinine clearance 50 to 80 mL/min, observe these patients frequently for signs and symptoms of bleeding.

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