EPINEPHRINE- epinephrine injection, solution, concentrate
General Injectables and Vaccines, Inc.
1.1 Hypotension associated with Septic Shock
Epinephrine Injection USP, 1 mg/mL is indicated to increase mean arterial blood pressure in adult patients with hypotension associated with septic shock.
Emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I), including anaphylaxis, which may result from allergic reactions to insect stings, biting insects, foods, drugs, sera, diagnostic testing substances and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced anaphylaxis. The signs and symptoms associated with anaphylaxis include flushing, apprehension, syncope, tachycardia, thready or unobtainable pulse associated with hypotension, convulsions, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps, involuntary voiding, airway swelling, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, pruritus, urticaria or angioedema, swelling of the eyelids, lips, and tongue.
1.3 Induction and Maintenance of Mydriasis during Intraocular Surgery
Induction and maintenance of mydriasis during intraocular surgery.
2.1 General Considerations
Inspect visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if the solution is colored or cloudy, or if it contains particulate matter. Discard any unused portion.
2.2 Hypotension associated with Septic Shock
Dilute epinephrine in 5 percent dextrose solution or 5 percent dextrose and sodium chloride solution. These dextrose containing fluids provide protection against significant loss of potency by oxidation. Administration in saline solution alone is not recommended. Whole blood or plasma, if indicated to increase blood volume, should be administered separately.
Add 1 mL (1 mg) of epinephrine from its ampule to 1,000 mL of a 5 percent dextrose containing solution. Each mL of this dilution contains 1 mcg of epinephrine.
Correct blood volume depletion as fully as possible before any vasopressor is administered. When, as an emergency measure, intraaortic pressures must be maintained to prevent cerebral or coronary artery ischemia, epinephrine can be administered before and concurrently with blood volume replacement.
Whenever possible, give infusions of epinephrine into a large vein. Avoid using a catheter tie-in technique, because the obstruction to blood flow around the tubing may cause stasis and increased local concentration of the drug. Occlusive vascular diseases (for example, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, diabetic endarteritis, Buerger’s disease) are more likely to occur in the lower than in the upper extremity; therefore, avoid the veins of the leg in elderly patients or in those suffering from such disorders. There is potential for gangrene in a lower extremity when infusions of catecholamine are given in an ankle vein.
To provide hemodynamic support in septic shock associated hypotension in adult patients, the suggested dosing infusion rate of intravenously administered epinephrine is 0.05 mcg/kg/min to 2 mcg/kg/min, and is titrated to achieve a desired mean arterial pressure (MAP). The dosage may be adjusted periodically, such as every 10 — 15 minutes, in increments of 0.05 mcg/kg/min to 0.2 mcg/kg/min, to achieve the desired blood pressure goal.
Continuous epinephrine infusion is generally required over several hours or days until the patient’s hemodynamic status improves. The duration of perfusion or total cumulative dose cannot be predicted.
After hemodynamic stabilization, wean incrementally over time, such as by decreasing doses of epinephrine every 30 minutes over a 12- to 24-hour period.
Inject epinephrine intramuscularly or subcutaneously into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, through clothing if necessary. When administering to a child, to minimize the risk of injection related injury, hold the leg firmly in place and limit movement prior to and during an injection. The injection may be repeated every 5 to 10 minutes as necessary. For intramuscular administration, use a needle long enough (at least 1/2 inch to 5/8 inch) to ensure the injection is administered into the muscle. Monitor the patient clinically for the severity of the allergic reaction and potential cardiac effects of the drug, with repeat doses titrated to effect. Do not administer repeated injections at the same site, as the resulting vasoconstriction may cause tissue necrosis.
Adults and Children 30 kg (66 lbs) or more: 0.3 to 0.5 mg (0.3 mL to 0.5 mL) of undiluted epinephrine administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, up to a maximum of 0.5 mg (0.5 mL) per injection, repeated every 5 to 10 minutes as necessary. Monitor clinically for reaction severity and cardiac effects.
Children less than 30 kg (66 lbs): 0.01 mg/kg (0.01 mL/kg) of undiluted epinephrine administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, up to a maximum of 0.3 mg (0.3 mL) per injection, repeated every 5 to 10 minutes as necessary. Monitor clinically for reaction severity and cardiac effects.
2.4 Induction and Maintenance of Mydriasis during Intraocular Surgery
Epinephrine must be diluted prior to intraocular use. Dilute 1 mL of epinephrine 1 mg/mL (1:1000) in 100 to 1000 mL of an ophthalmic irrigation fluid to create an epinephrine concentration of 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 (10 mcg/mL to 1 mcg/mL). Use the irrigating solution as needed for the surgical procedure.
After dilution in an ophthalmic irrigating fluid, epinephrine may also be injected intracamerally as a bolus dose of 0.1 mL at a dilution of 1:100,000 to 1:400,000 (10 mcg/mL to 2.5 mcg/mL).
Injection solution: 1 mg/1 mL epinephrine as a sterile solution in a 2 mL single-use clear glass ampule, marked Epinephrine Injection USP, 1 mg/mL.
When Epinephrine Injection is administered intravenously, titrate the infusion while monitoring vital signs. Invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring and central venous pressure monitoring are recommended. Because of varying response to epinephrine, dangerously high blood pressure may occur.
Patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or antidepressants of the triptyline or imipramine types may experience severe, prolonged hypertension when given epinephrine.
5.2 Extravasation and Tissue Necrosis with Intravenous Infusion
When Epinephrine Injection is administered intravenously, the infusion site should be checked frequently for free flow. Avoid extravasation of epinephrine into the tissues, to prevent local necrosis. Blanching along the course of the infused vein, sometimes without obvious extravasation, may be attributed to vasa vasorum constriction with increased permeability of the vein wall, permitting some leakage. This also may progress on rare occasions to superficial slough. Hence, if blanching occurs, consider changing the infusion site at intervals to allow the effects of local vasoconstriction to subside.
Antidote for Extravasation Ischemia: To prevent sloughing and necrosis in areas in which extravasation has taken place, infiltrate the area with 10 mL to 15 mL of saline solution containing from 5 mg to 10 mg of phentolamine, an adrenergic blocking agent. Use a syringe with a fine hypodermic needle, with the solution being infiltrated liberally throughout the area, which is easily identified by its cold, hard, and pallid appearance. Sympathetic blockade with phentolamine causes immediate and conspicuous local hyperemic changes if the area is infiltrated within 12 hours.
5.3 Incorrect Locations of Injection for Anaphylaxis
When Epinephrine Injection is used for the treatment of anaphylaxis, the most appropriate location for administration is into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh (vastus lateralis muscle) because of its location, size, and available blood flow. Injection into (or near) smaller muscles, such as in the deltoid, is not recommended due to possible differences in absorption associated with this use.
Do not administer repeated injections of epinephrine at the same site, as the resulting vasoconstriction may cause tissue necrosis.
Do not inject into buttock. Injection into the buttock may not provide effective treatment of anaphylaxis and has been associated with the development of Clostridial infections (gas gangrene). Cleansing with alcohol does not kill bacterial spores, and therefore, does not lower this risk.
Do not inject into digits, hands, or feet. Epinephrine is a strong vasoconstrictor. Accidental injection into the digits, hands or feet may result in loss of blood flow to the affected area and has been associated with tissue necrosis.
5.4 Pulmonary Edema
When Epinephrine Injection is administered intravenously, there is risk of pulmonary edema because of the peripheral constriction and cardiac stimulation produced. Treatment of pulmonary edema consists of a rapidly acting alpha-adrenergic blocking drug (such as phentolamine mesylate) and respiratory support.
5.5 Renal Impairment
Intravenously administered epinephrine initially may produce constriction of renal blood vessels and decrease urine formation.
5.6 Cardiac Arrhythmias and Ischemia
Epinephrine may induce cardiac arrhythmias and angina pectoris in patients , especially patients suffering from coronary artery disease, organic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, or patients who are receiving drugs that sensitize the myocardium [see Adverse Reactions (6) and Drug Interactions (7)]. Treatment of arrhythmias consists of administration of a beta-adrenergic blocking drug (such as propranolol).
5.7 Injury with Undiluted Intraocular Solution
Epinephrine must be diluted before intraocular use. Other epinephrine products that contain sodium bisulfite have been associated with corneal endothelial damage when used in the eye at undiluted concentrations (1 mg/mL). Although this Epinephrine product contains no sulfites or preservatives, warning is still advised [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
5.8 Serious Infections at the Injection Site
Rare cases of serious skin and soft tissue infections, including necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis caused by Clostridia (gas gangrene), have been reported at the injection site following epinephrine injection for anaphylaxis. Clostridium spores can be present on the skin and introduced into the deep tissue with subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. While cleansing with alcohol may reduce presence of bacteria on the skin, alcohol cleansing does not kill Clostridium spores. To decrease the risk of Clostridium infection, do not inject Epinephrine Injection into the buttock [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Advise patients to seek medical care if they develop signs or symptoms of infection, such as persistent redness, warmth, swelling, or tenderness, at the epinephrine injection site.
5.9 Other Disease Interactions
Epinephrine should be administered with caution to patients with hyperthyroidism, Parkinson’s disease, diabetes mellitus, pheochromocytoma, elderly individuals, and pregnant women. Patients with Parkinson’s disease may experience psychomotor agitation or notice a temporary worsening of symptoms. Diabetic patients may experience transient increases in blood sugar. Despite these concerns, the presence of these conditions is not a contraindication to epinephrine administration in an acute, life-threatening situation.
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