EPINEPHRINE- epinephrine injection, solution, concentrate
Henry Schein, Inc.
1.1 Hypotension associated with Septic Shock
Epinephrine Injection USP, 1 mg/mL is indicated to increase mean arterial blood pressure in adult patients with hypotension associated with septic shock.
Emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I), including anaphylaxis, which may result from allergic reactions to insect stings, biting insects, foods, drugs, sera, diagnostic testing substances and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced anaphylaxis. The signs and symptoms associated with anaphylaxis include flushing, apprehension, syncope, tachycardia, thready or unobtainable pulse associated with hypotension, convulsions, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps, involuntary voiding, airway swelling, laryngospasm, bronchospasm, pruritus, urticaria or angioedema, swelling of the eyelids, lips, and tongue.
1.3 Induction and Maintenance of Mydriasis during Intraocular Surgery
Induction and maintenance of mydriasis during intraocular surgery.
2.1 General Considerations
Inspect visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if the solution is colored or cloudy, or if it contains particulate matter. Discard any unused portion.
2.2 Hypotension associated with Septic Shock
Dilute epinephrine in 5 percent dextrose solution or 5 percent dextrose and sodium chloride solution. These dextrose containing fluids provide protection against significant loss of potency by oxidation. Administration in saline solution alone is not recommended. Whole blood or plasma, if indicated to increase blood volume, should be administered separately.
Add 1 mL (1 mg) of epinephrine from its ampule to 1,000 mL of a 5 percent dextrose containing solution. Each mL of this dilution contains 1 mcg of epinephrine.
Correct blood volume depletion as fully as possible before any vasopressor is administered. When, as an emergency measure, intraaortic pressures must be maintained to prevent cerebral or coronary artery ischemia, epinephrine can be administered before and concurrently with blood volume replacement.
Whenever possible, give infusions of epinephrine into a large vein. Avoid using a catheter tie-in technique, because the obstruction to blood flow around the tubing may cause stasis and increased local concentration of the drug. Occlusive vascular diseases (for example, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, diabetic endarteritis, Buerger’s disease) are more likely to occur in the lower than in the upper extremity; therefore, avoid the veins of the leg in elderly patients or in those suffering from such disorders. There is potential for gangrene in a lower extremity when infusions of catecholamine are given in an ankle vein.
To provide hemodynamic support in septic shock associated hypotension in adult patients, the suggested dosing infusion rate of intravenously administered epinephrine is 0.05 mcg/kg/min to 2 mcg/kg/min, and is titrated to achieve a desired mean arterial pressure (MAP). The dosage may be adjusted periodically, such as every 10 — 15 minutes, in increments of 0.05 mcg/kg/min to 0.2 mcg/kg/min, to achieve the desired blood pressure goal.
Continuous epinephrine infusion is generally required over several hours or days until the patient’s hemodynamic status improves. The duration of perfusion or total cumulative dose cannot be predicted.
After hemodynamic stabilization, wean incrementally over time, such as by decreasing doses of epinephrine every 30 minutes over a 12- to 24-hour period.
Inject epinephrine intramuscularly or subcutaneously into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, through clothing if necessary. When administering to a child, to minimize the risk of injection related injury, hold the leg firmly in place and limit movement prior to and during an injection. The injection may be repeated every 5 to 10 minutes as necessary. For intramuscular administration, use a needle long enough (at least 1/2 inch to 5/8 inch) to ensure the injection is administered into the muscle. Monitor the patient clinically for the severity of the allergic reaction and potential cardiac effects of the drug, with repeat doses titrated to effect. Do not administer repeated injections at the same site, as the resulting vasoconstriction may cause tissue necrosis.
Adults and Children 30 kg (66 lbs) or more: 0.3 to 0.5 mg (0.3 mL to 0.5 mL) of undiluted epinephrine administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, up to a maximum of 0.5 mg (0.5 mL) per injection, repeated every 5 to 10 minutes as necessary. Monitor clinically for reaction severity and cardiac effects.
Children less than 30 kg (66 lbs): 0.01 mg/kg (0.01 mL/kg) of undiluted epinephrine administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, up to a maximum of 0.3 mg (0.3 mL) per injection, repeated every 5 to 10 minutes as necessary. Monitor clinically for reaction severity and cardiac effects.
2.4 Induction and Maintenance of Mydriasis during Intraocular Surgery
Epinephrine must be diluted prior to intraocular use. Dilute 1 mL of epinephrine 1 mg/mL (1:1000) in 100 to 1000 mL of an ophthalmic irrigation fluid to create an epinephrine concentration of 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 (10 mcg/mL to 1 mcg/mL). Use the irrigating solution as needed for the surgical procedure.
After dilution in an ophthalmic irrigating fluid, epinephrine may also be injected intracamerally as a bolus dose of 0.1 mL at a dilution of 1:100,000 to 1:400,000 (10 mcg/mL to 2.5 mcg/mL).
Injection solution: 1 mg/1 mL epinephrine as a sterile solution in a 2 mL single-use clear glass ampule, marked Epinephrine Injection USP, 1 mg/mL.
6.1 Adverse Reactions associated with Epinephrine Infusion (for Hypotension associated with Septic Shock)
The following adverse reactions associated with the infusion of epinephrine were identified in the literature. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cardiovascular disorders: tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, limb ischemia, pulmonary edema
Gastrointestinal disorders: Nausea, vomiting
General disorders and administrative site conditions: Chest pain, extravasation,
Metabolic: hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypokalemia, lactic acidosis
Nervous system disorders: Headache, nervousness, paresthesia, tremor, stroke, central nervous system bleeding
Psychiatric disorders: Excitability
Renal disorders: Renal insufficiency
Respiratory: Pulmonary edema, rales
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Diaphoresis, pallor, piloerection, skin blanching, skin necrosis with extravasation
6.2 Adverse Reactions associated with Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Use (for Anaphylaxis)
Common adverse reactions to systemically administered epinephrine include anxiety, apprehensiveness, restlessness, tremor, weakness, dizziness, sweating, palpitations, pallor, nausea and vomiting, headache, and respiratory difficulties. These symptoms occur in some persons receiving therapeutic doses of epinephrine, but are more likely to occur in patients with heart disease, hypertension, or hyperthyroidism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Due to the lack of randomized, controlled clinical trials of epinephrine for the treatment of anaphylaxis, the true incidence of adverse reactions associated with the systemic use of epinephrine is difficult to determine. Adverse reactions reported in observational trials, case reports, and studies are listed below by body system:
Cardiovascular: angina, arrhythmias, hypertension, pallor, palpitations, tachyarrhythmia, tachycardia, vasoconstriction, and ventricular ectopy. Angina may occur in patients with coronary artery disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Arrhythmias, including fatal ventricular fibrillation, have occurred, particularly in patients with underlying organic heart disease or patients receiving drugs that sensitize the heart to arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Rapid rises in blood pressure associated with epinephrine use have produced cerebral hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients with cardiovascular disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Respiratory: respiratory difficulties.
Neurological: dizziness, disorientation, excitability, headache, impaired memory, lightheadedness, nervousness, panic, psychomotor agitation, sleepiness, tingling, tremor, and weakness.
Psychiatric: anxiety, apprehensiveness, restlessness.
Gastrointestinal: nausea, vomiting.
Other: Patients with Parkinson’s disease may experience psychomotor agitation or a temporary worsening of symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. Diabetic patients may experience transient increases in blood sugar [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Accidental injection into the digits, hands or feet may result in loss of blood flow to the affected area [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Adverse events experienced as a result of an injection into these areas include increased heart rate, local reactions including injection site pallor, coldness, hypoesthesia, and tissue loss, or injury at the injection site resulting in bruising, bleeding, discoloration, erythema, and skeletal injury.
Injection into the buttock has resulted in cases of gas gangrene [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Rare cases of serious skin and soft tissue infections, including necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis caused by Clostridia (gas gangrene), have been reported following epinephrine injection in the thigh [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].
6.3 Adverse Reactions Associated with Intraocular Use (for Mydriasis)
Epinephrine products containing sodium bisulfite have been associated with corneal endothelial damage when used in the eye at undiluted concentrations (1 mg/mL). Although this Epinephrine product contains no sulfites or preservatives, warning is still advised [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact BPI Labs LLC at (727) 471-0850 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
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