EPINEPHRINE- epinephrine injection
Amneal Pharmaceuticals of New York LLC
Epinephrine injection is indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis to stinging insects (e.g., order Hymenoptera, which includes bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets and fire ants), and biting insects (e.g., triatoma, mosquitoes), allergen immunotherapy, foods, drugs, diagnostic testing substances (e.g., radiocontrast media), and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced anaphylaxis.
Epinephrine injection is intended for immediate administration in patients who are determined to be at increased risk for anaphylaxis, including individuals with a history of anaphylactic reactions.
Anaphylactic reactions may occur within minutes after exposure and consist of flushing, apprehension, syncope, tachycardia, thready or unobtainable pulse associated with a fall in blood pressure, convulsions, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps, involuntary voiding, wheezing, dyspnea due to laryngeal spasm, pruritus, rashes, urticaria, or angioedema.
Epinephrine injection is intended for immediate administration as emergency supportive therapy only and is not a replacement or substitute for immediate medical care.
- Patients greater than or equal to 30 kg (approximately 66 pounds or more): 0.3 mg
- Patients 15 kg to 30 kg (33 pounds to 66 pounds): 0.15 mg
- Inject the single-dose epinephrine injection intramuscularly or subcutaneously into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh, through clothing if necessary. Do not inject intravenously, and do not inject into buttocks, into digits, hands or feet [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- Instruct caregivers of young children who are prescribed an epinephrine injection and who may be uncooperative and kick or move during an injection to hold the leg firmly in place and limit movement prior to and during an injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
- Each epinephrine injection is a single-dose of epinephrine injection for single use. Since the doses of epinephrine delivered from epinephrine injection are fixed, consider using other forms of injectable epinephrine if doses lower than 0.15 mg are deemed necessary.
- With severe persistent anaphylaxis, repeat injections with an additional epinephrine injection may be necessary. More than two sequential doses of epinephrine should only be administered under direct medical supervision [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- The epinephrine solution in the viewing window of epinephrine injection should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration.
- Injection: 0.3 mg (0.3 mg/0.3 mL) of clear and colorless solution in single-dose pre-filled auto-injector
- Injection: 0.15 mg (0.15 mg/0.15 mL) of clear and colorless solution in single-dose pre-filled auto-injector
Epinephrine injection is intended for immediate administration as emergency supportive therapy and is not intended as a substitute for immediate medical care. In conjunction with the administration of epinephrine, the patient should seek immediate medical or hospital care. More than two sequential doses of epinephrine should only be administered under direct medical supervision [see Indications and Usage (1), Dosage and Administration (2) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Epinephrine injection should only be injected into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Do not inject intravenously
Large doses or accidental intravenous injection of epinephrine may result in cerebral hemorrhage due to a sharp rise in blood pressure. Rapidly acting vasodilators can counteract the marked pressor effects of epinephrine if there is such inadvertent administration.
Do not inject into buttock
Injection into the buttock may not provide effective treatment of anaphylaxis. Advise the patient to go immediately to the nearest emergency room for further treatment of anaphylaxis. Additionally, injection into the buttock has been associated with the development of Clostridial infections (gas gangrene). Cleansing with alcohol does not kill bacterial spores, and therefore, does not lower the risk.
Do not inject into digits, hands or feet
Since epinephrine is a strong vasoconstrictor, accidental injection into the digits, hands or feet may result in loss of blood flow to the affected area. Advise the patient to go immediately to the nearest emergency room and to inform the healthcare provider in the emergency room of the location of the accidental injection. Treatment of such inadvertent administration should consist of vasodilation, in addition to further appropriate treatment of anaphylaxis [see Adverse Reactions (6)].
Hold leg firmly during injection
Lacerations, bent needles, and embedded needles have been reported when epinephrine has been injected into the thigh of young children who are uncooperative and kick or move during an injection. To minimize the risk of injection related injury when administering, hold the child’s leg firmly in place and limit movement prior to and during injection.
Rare cases of serious skin and soft tissue infections, including necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis caused by Clostridia (gas gangrene), have been reported at the injection site following epinephrine injection for anaphylaxis. Clostridium spores can be present on the skin and introduced into the deep tissue with subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. While cleansing with alcohol may reduce presence of bacteria on the skin, alcohol cleansing does not kill Clostridium spores. To decrease the risk of Clostridium infection, do not inject epinephrine injection into the buttock [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Advise patients to seek medical care if they develop signs or symptoms of infection, such as persistent redness, warmth, swelling, or tenderness, at the epinephrine injection site.
The presence of a sulfite in this product should not deter administration of the drug for treatment of serious allergic or other emergency situations even if the patient is sulfite-sensitive.
Epinephrine is the preferred treatment for serious allergic reactions or other emergency situations even though this product contains sodium bisulfite, a sulfite that may, in other products, cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms or life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible persons.
The alternatives to using epinephrine in a life-threatening situation may not be satisfactory.
Some patients may be at greater risk for developing adverse reactions after epinephrine administration. Despite these concerns, it should be recognized that the presence of these conditions is not a contraindication to epinephrine administration in an acute, life-threatening situation. Therefore, patients with these conditions, and/or any other person who might be in a position to administer epinephrine injection to a patient experiencing anaphylaxis should be carefully instructed in regard to the circumstances under which epinephrine should be used.
Patients with Heart Disease
Epinephrine should be administered with caution to patients who have heart disease, including patients with cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery or organic heart disease, or hypertension. In such patients, or in patients who are on drugs that may sensitize the heart to arrhythmias, epinephrine may precipitate or aggravate angina pectoris as well as produce ventricular arrhythmias [see Drug Interactions (7) and Adverse Reactions (6)].
Other Patients and Diseases
Epinephrine should be administered with caution to patients with hyperthyroidism, diabetes, elderly individuals, and pregnant women. Patients with Parkinson’s disease may notice a temporary worsening of symptoms.
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