Epinephrine (Page 2 of 3)

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Patients who receive epinephrine while concomitantly taking cardiac glycosides, diuretics, or anti-arrhythmics should be observed carefully for the development of cardiac arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].

The effects of epinephrine may be potentiated by tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, levothyroxine sodium, and certain antihistamines, notably chlorpheniramine, tripelennamine, and diphenhydramine.

The cardiostimulating and bronchodilating effects of epinephrine are antagonized by beta-adrenergic blocking drugs, such as propranolol.

The vasoconstricting and hypertensive effects of epinephrine are antagonized by alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs, such as phentolamine.

Ergot alkaloids may also reverse the pressor effects of epinephrine.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C.

There are no adequate and well controlled studies of the acute effect of epinephrine in pregnant women.

Epinephrine was teratogenic in rabbits, mice and hamsters. Epinephrine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus (fetal anoxia, spontaneous abortion, or both).

Epinephrine has been shown to have teratogenic effects when administered subcutaneously in rabbits at approximately 30 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 1.2 mg/kg/day for two to three days), in mice at approximately 7 times the maximum daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 10 days), and in hamsters at approximately 5 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 days).

These effects were not seen in mice at approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily subcutaneous or intramuscular dose (on a mg/m2 basis at a subcutaneous maternal dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 10 days).

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether epinephrine is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector is administered to a nursing woman.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector may be administered to pediatric patients at a dosage appropriate to body weight [see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. Clinical experience with the use of epinephrine suggests that the adverse reactions seen in children are similar in nature and extent to those both expected and reported in adults. Since the dose of epinephrine delivered from epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector is fixed, consider using other forms of injectable epinephrine if doses lower than 0.15 mg are deemed necessary.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies for the treatment of anaphylaxis have not been performed in subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. However, other reported clinical experience with use of epinephrine for the treatment of anaphylaxis has identified that geriatric patients may be particularly sensitive to the effects of epinephrine. Therefore, epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector should be administered with caution in elderly individuals, who may be at greater risk for developing adverse reactions after epinephrine administration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Overdosage (10)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Overdosage of epinephrine may produce extremely elevated arterial pressure, which may result in cerebrovascular hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients. Overdosage may also result in pulmonary edema because of peripheral vascular constriction together with cardiac stimulation. Treatment consists of a rapidly acting vasodilators or alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs and/or respiratory support.

Epinephrine overdosage can also cause transient bradycardia followed by tachycardia, and these may be accompanied by potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular contractions may appear within one minute after injection and may be followed by multifocal ventricular tachycardia (prefibrillation rhythm). Subsidence of the ventricular effects may be followed by atrial tachycardia and occasionally by atrioventricular block. Treatment of arrhythmias consists of administration of a beta-adrenergic blocking drug such as propranolol.

Overdosage sometimes results in extreme pallor and coldness of the skin, metabolic acidosis, and kidney failure. Suitable corrective measures must be taken in such situations.

11 DESCRIPTION

Epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector 0.3 mg and 0.15 mg is an auto-injector and a combination product containing drug and device components.

Each epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector 0.3 mg delivers a single dose of 0.3 mg epinephrine from epinephrine injection, USP (0.3 mL) in a sterile solution.

Each epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector 0.15 mg delivers a single dose of 0.15 mg epinephrine from epinephrine injection, USP (0.15 mL) in a sterile solution.

Epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector 0.3 mg and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector 0.15 mg each contain 1.1 mL of epinephrine solution. 0.3 mL and 0.15 mL epinephrine solution are dispensed for epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector 0.3 mg and epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector 0.15 mg, respectively, when activated. The solution remaining after activation is not available for future use and should be discarded.

Each 0.3 mL in epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector 0.3 mg contains 0.3 mg epinephrine, 2.6 mg sodium chloride, not more than 1.5 mg chlorobutanol, 0.45 mg sodium bisulfite, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to adjust pH, and water for injection. The pH range is 2.2-5.0.

Each 0.15 mL in epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector 0.15 mg contains 0.15 mg epinephrine, 1.3 mg sodium chloride, not more than 0.75 mg chlorobutanol, 0.225 sodium bisulfite, hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to adjust pH, and water for injection. The pH range is 2.2-5.0.

Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic catecholamine. Chemically, epinephrine is (-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-α-[(methylamino)methyl]benzyl alcohol with the following structure:

Chemical Structure

Epinephrine solution deteriorates rapidly on exposure to air or light, turning pink from oxidation to adrenochrome and brown from the formation of melanin. Replace epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector if the epinephrine solution appears discolored (pinkish or brown color), cloudy, or contains particles.

Thoroughly review the patient instructions and operation of epinephrine injection, USP auto-injector with patients and caregivers prior to use [see Patient Counseling Information (17) ].

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Epinephrine acts on both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Through its action on alpha-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine lessens the vasodilation and increased vascular permeability that occurs during anaphylaxis, which can lead to loss of intravascular fluid volume and hypotension.

Through its action on beta-adrenergic receptors, epinephrine causes bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and helps alleviate bronchospasm, wheezing, and dyspnea that may occur during anaphylaxis.

Epinephrine also alleviates pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema, and may relieve gastrointestinal and genitourinary symptoms associated with anaphylaxis because of its relaxer effects on the smooth muscle of the stomach, intestine, uterus and urinary bladder.

When given intramuscularly or subcutaneously, epinephrine has a rapid onset and short duration of action.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of epinephrine have not been conducted.

Epinephrine and other catecholamines have been shown to have mutagenic potential in vitro and to be an oxidative mutagen in a WP2 bacterial reverse mutation assay.

Epinephrine was positive in the DNA Repair test with B. subtilis (REC) assay, but was not mutagenic in the Salmonella bacterial reverse mutation assay.

The potential for epinephrine to impair fertility has not been evaluated.

This should not prevent the use of epinephrine under the conditions noted under Indications and Usage (1).

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

16.1 How Supplied

Carton containing two epinephrine injection, USP auto-injectors 0.3 mg: NDC 68788-6376-2.

Rx only

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