Epirubicin Hydrochloride Injection is provided in single-dose, colorless, type I glass vials containing 2 mg epirubicin hydrochloride per mL as a sterile, preservative-free, ready-to-use solution in the following sizes: 50 mg/25 mL and 200 mg/100 mL.
Patients should not be treated with epirubicin hydrochloride injection if they have any of the following conditions:
Cardiomyopathy and/or heart failure, recent myocardial infarction or severe arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Previous treatment with maximum cumulative dose of anthracyclines [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
Hypersensitivity to epirubicin hydrochloride injection, other anthracyclines, or anthracenediones [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Administer epirubicin hydrochloride injection only under the supervision of qualified physicians experienced in the use of cytotoxic therapy. Before beginning treatment with epirubicin hydrochloride injection, patients should recover from acute toxicities (such as stomatitis, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and generalized infections) of prior cytotoxic treatment. Also, precede initial treatment with epirubicin hydrochloride injection by a careful baseline assessment of blood counts; serum levels of total bilirubin, AST, and creatinine; and cardiac function as measured by left ventricular ejection function (LVEF). Carefully monitor patients during treatment for possible clinical complications due to myelosuppression. Supportive care may be necessary for the treatment of severe neutropenia and severe infectious complications. Monitoring for potential cardiotoxicity is also important, especially with greater cumulative exposure to epirubicin hydrochloride injection.
Epirubicin hydrochloride injection is administered by intravenous infusion. Venous sclerosis may result from an injection into a small vessel or from repeated injections into the same vein. Extravasation of epirubicin hydrochloride injection during the infusion may cause local pain, severe tissue lesions (vesication, severe cellulitis), and necrosis. Administer epirubicin hydrochloride injection slowly into the tubing of a freely running intravenous infusion. Patients receiving initial therapy at the recommended starting doses of 100 to 120 mg/m2 should generally have epirubicin hydrochloride injection infused over 15 to 20 minutes. For patients who require lower epirubicin hydrochloride injection starting doses due to organ dysfunction or who require modification of epirubicin hydrochloride injection doses during therapy, the epirubicin hydrochloride injection infusion time may be proportionally decreased, but should not be less than 3 minutes. [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. If possible, avoid veins over joints or in extremities with compromised venous or lymphatic drainage. Immediately terminate infusion and restart in another vein if a burning or stinging sensation indicates perivenous infiltration. Perivenous infiltration may occur without causing pain. Facial flushing, as well as local erythematous streaking along the vein, may be indicative of excessively rapid administration. It may precede local phlebitis or thrombophlebitis. Give prophylactic antibiotic therapy to patients administered the 120-mg/m2 regimen of epirubicin hydrochloride injection as a component of combination chemotherapy [see Clinical Studies (14.1) and Dosage and Administration 2.1)].
Epirubicin hydrochloride injection can suppress bone marrow function as manifested by leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)], and myelosuppression is usually the dose-limiting toxicity. Patients should be monitored for myelosuppression during therapy [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3)].
Cardiotoxicity is a known risk of anthracycline treatment. Anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity may be manifested by early (or acute) or late (delayed) events. Early cardiac toxicity of epirubicin hydrochloride injection consists mainly of sinus tachycardia and/or electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities such as non-specific ST-T wave changes, but tachyarrhythmias, including premature ventricular contractions and ventricular tachycardia, bradycardia, as well as atrioventricular and bundle-branch block have also been reported. These effects do not usually predict subsequent development of delayed cardiotoxicity, are rarely of clinical importance, and are generally not considered an indication for the suspension of epirubicin hydrochloride injection treatment. Delayed cardiac toxicity results from a characteristic cardiomyopathy that is manifested by reduced LVEF and/or signs and symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF) such as tachycardia, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, dependent edema, hepatomegaly, ascites, pleural effusion, gallop rhythm. Life-threatening CHF is the most severe form of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. This toxicity appears to be dependent on the cumulative dose of epirubicin hydrochloride injection and represents the cumulative dose-limiting toxicity of the drug. If it occurs, delayed cardiotoxicity usually develops late in the course of therapy with epirubicin hydrochloride injection or within 2 to 3 months after completion of treatment, but later events (several months to years after treatment termination) have been reported.
Given the risk of cardiomyopathy, exceed a cumulative dose of 900 mg/m2 epirubicin hydrochloride injection only with extreme caution. Risk factors [active or dormant cardiovascular disease, prior or concomitant radiotherapy to the mediastinal/pericardial area, previous therapy with other anthracyclines or anthracenediones, concomitant use of other drugs with the ability to suppress cardiac contractility or cardiotoxic drugs, especially those with long half-lives (e.g., trastuzumab)] may increase the risk of epirubicin hydrochloride injection cardiotoxicity [see Drug Interaction (7.4) and Dosage and Administration (2)]. Although not formally tested, it is probable that the toxicity of epirubicin hydrochloride injection and other anthracyclines or anthracenediones is additive. Cardiac toxicity with epirubicin hydrochloride injection may occur at lower cumulative doses whether or not cardiac risk factors are present.
Although endomyocardial biopsy is recognized as the most sensitive diagnostic tool to detect anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy, this invasive examination is not practically performed on a routine basis. ECG changes such as dysrhythmias, a reduction of the QRS voltage, or a prolongation beyond normal limits of the systolic time interval may be indicative of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy, but ECG is not a sensitive or specific method for following anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity. The risk of serious cardiac impairment may be decreased through regular monitoring of LVEF during the course of treatment with prompt discontinuation of epirubicin hydrochloride injection at the first sign of impaired function. The preferred method for repeated assessment of cardiac function is evaluation of LVEF measured by multi-gated radionuclide angiography (MUGA) or echocardiography (ECHO). A baseline cardiac evaluation with an ECG and a MUGA scan or an ECHO is recommended, especially in patients with risk factors for increased cardiac toxicity. Perform repeated MUGA or ECHO determinations of LVEF, particularly with higher, cumulative anthracycline doses. The technique used for assessment should be consistent through follow-up. In patients with risk factors, particularly prior anthracycline or anthracenedione use, the monitoring of cardiac function must be particularly strict and the risk-benefit of continuing treatment with epirubicin hydrochloride injection in patients with impaired cardiac function must be carefully evaluated.
Do not administer epirubicin hydrochloride injection in combination with other cardiotoxic agents unless the patient’s cardiac function is closely monitored. Patients receiving epirubicin hydrochloride injection after stopping treatment with other cardiotoxic agents, especially those with long half-lives such as trastuzumab, may also be at an increased risk of developing cardiotoxicity [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
The occurrence of secondary acute myelogenous leukemia, with or without a preleukemic phase, has been reported in patients treated with anthracyclines. Secondary leukemia is more common when such drugs are given in combination with DNA-damaging antineoplastic agents, when patients have been heavily pretreated with cytotoxic drugs, or when doses of the anthracyclines have been escalated. These leukemias can have a short 1- to 3-year latency period.
Epirubicin hydrochloride injection is mutagenic, clastogenic, and carcinogenic in animals [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
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