The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of eplerenone. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Skin: angioneurotic edema, rash
Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction
Creatinine: Increases of more than 0.5 mg/dL were reported for 6.5% of patients administered eplerenone and for 4.9% of placebo-treated patients.
Potassium: In EPHESUS [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] , the frequencies of patients with changes in potassium (<3.5 mEq/L or >5.5 mEq/L or ≥6.0 mEq/L) receiving eplerenone compared with placebo are displayed in Table 2.
|Potassium (mEq/L)||Eplerenone(N=3251)n (%)||Placebo(N=3237)n (%)|
|< 3.5||273 (8.4)||424 (13.1)|
|>5.5||508 (15.6)||363 (11.2)|
|≥ 6.0||180 (5.5)||126 (3.9)|
Rates of hyperkalemia increased with decreasing renal function.
|Baseline Creatinine Clearance||Eplerenone(N=508)n (%)||Placebo(N=363)n (%)|
|≤30 mL/min||160 (32)||82 (23)|
|31–50 mL/min||122 (24)||46 (13)|
|51–70 mL/min||86 (17)||48 (13)|
|>70 mL/min||56 (11)||32 (9)|
The rates of hyperkalemia in EPHESUS in the eplerenone treated group vs. placebo were increased in patients with proteinuria (16% vs 11%), diabetes (18% vs. 13%) or both (26% vs. 16%).
Potassium: In placebo-controlled fixed-dose studies, the mean increases in serum potassium were dose-related and are shown in Table 4 along with the frequencies of values >5.5 mEq/L.
|Mean Increase mEq/L||% >5.5 mEq/L|
In post-MI HFrEF patients taking a moderate CYP3A inhibitor, do not exceed 25 mg once daily. In patients with hypertension taking a moderate CYP3A inhibitor, initiate at 25 mg once daily. For inadequate blood pressure response, dosing may be increased to a maximum of 25 mg twice daily [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The risk of hyperkalaemia increase when eplerenone is used in combination with an ACE inhibitor and/or an ARB. A close monitoring of serum potassium and renal function is recommended, especially in patients at risk for impaired renal function, e.g., the elderly [see Warnings and Precautions(5.1)].
A drug interaction study of eplerenone with lithium has not been conducted. Lithium toxicity has been reported in patients receiving lithium concomitantly with diuretics and ACE inhibitors. Serum lithium levels should be monitored frequently if eplerenone is administered concomitantly with lithium.
A drug interaction study of eplerenone with an NSAID has not been conducted. The administration of other potassium-sparing antihypertensives with NSAIDs has been shown to reduce the antihypertensive effect in some patients and result in severe hyperkalemia in patients with impaired renal function. Therefore, when eplerenone and NSAIDs are used concomitantly, monitor blood pressure and serum potassium levels.
The available data from published case reports on eplerenone use during pregnancy are insufficient to establish a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Clinical Considerations). In animal studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed when eplerenone was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at exposures 32 and 31 times, respectively the human exposure at the 100 mg/day therapeutic dose.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. In the US general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly.
Pregnant women with heart failure are at increased risk for preterm birth. Stroke volume and heart rate increase during pregnancy, increasing cardiac output, especially during the first trimester. Clinical classification of heart disease may worsen with pregnancy and lead to maternal death. Closely monitor pregnant patients for destabilization of their heart failure.
Embryo-fetal development studies were conducted with doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day in rats and 300 mg/kg/day in rabbits (exposures up to 32 and 31 times the human AUC for the 100 mg/day therapeutic dose, respectively) administered during organogenesis. No teratogenic effects were seen in rats or rabbits, although decreased rat fetal weights were observed, and decreased body weight in maternal rabbits and increased rabbit fetal resorptions and post-implantation loss were observed at the highest administered dosages.
In a pre- and postnatal development study pregnant rats were administered eplerenone at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day from Gestation Day 6 through Lactation Day 20. Decreased pup weights were observed beginning at birth at 1000 mg/kg/day.
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