The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of ERLEADA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate the frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: interstitial lung disease
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis
Strong CYP2C8 or CYP3A4 Inhibitors
Co-administration of a strong CYP2C8 or CYP3A4 inhibitor is predicted to increase the steady-state exposure of the active moieties (sum of unbound apalutamide plus the potency-adjusted unbound N-desmethyl-apalutamide). No initial dose adjustment is necessary however, reduce the ERLEADA dose based on tolerability [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. Mild or moderate inhibitors of CYP2C8 or CYP3A4 are not expected to affect the exposure of apalutamide.
CYP3A4, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and UGT Substrates
ERLEADA is a strong inducer of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19, and a weak inducer of CYP2C9 in humans. Concomitant use of ERLEADA with medications that are primarily metabolized by CYP3A4, CYP2C19, or CYP2C9 can result in lower exposure to these medications. Substitution for these medications is recommended when possible or evaluate for loss of activity if medication is continued. Concomitant administration of ERLEADA with medications that are substrates of UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) can result in decreased exposure. Use caution if substrates of UGT must be co-administered with ERLEADA and evaluate for loss of activity [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
P-gp, BCRP or OATP1B1 Substrates
Apalutamide was shown to be a weak inducer of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) clinically. At steady-state, apalutamide reduced the plasma exposure to fexofenadine (a P-gp substrate) and rosuvastatin (a BCRP/OATP1B1 substrate). Concomitant use of ERLEADA with medications that are substrates of P-gp, BCRP, or OATP1B1 can result in lower exposure of these medications. Use caution if substrates of P-gp, BCRP or OATP1B1 must be co-administered with ERLEADA and evaluate for loss of activity if medication is continued [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The safety and efficacy of ERLEADA have not been established in females. Based on findings from animals and its mechanism of action, ERLEADA can cause fetal harm and loss of pregnancy when administered to a pregnant female [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. There are no available data on ERLEADA use in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. In an animal reproduction study, oral administration of apalutamide to pregnant rats during and after organogenesis resulted in fetal abnormalities and embryo-fetal lethality at maternal exposures ≥ 2 times the human clinical exposure (AUC) at the recommended dose (see Data).
In a pilot embryo-fetal developmental toxicity study in rats, apalutamide caused developmental toxicity when administered at oral doses of 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day throughout and after the period of organogenesis (gestational days 6–20). Findings included embryo-fetal lethality (resorptions) at doses ≥50 mg/kg/day, decreased fetal anogenital distance, misshapen pituitary gland, and skeletal variations (unossified phalanges, supernumerary short thoracolumbar rib(s), and small, incomplete ossification, and/or misshapen hyoid bone) at ≥25 mg/kg/day. A dose of 100 mg/kg/day caused maternal toxicity. The doses tested in rats resulted in systemic exposures (AUC) approximately 2, 4 and 6 times, respectively, the AUC in patients.
The safety and efficacy of ERLEADA have not been established in females. There are no data on the presence of apalutamide or its metabolites in human milk, the effect on the breastfed child, or the effect on milk production.
Based on the mechanism of action and findings in an animal reproduction study, advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 3 months after the last dose of ERLEADA. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Based on animal studies, ERLEADA may impair fertility in males of reproductive potential [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
Safety and effectiveness of ERLEADA in pediatric patients have not been established.
Of the 1327 patients who received ERLEADA in clinical studies, 19% of patients were less than 65 years, 41% of patients were 65 years to 74 years, and 40% were 75 years and over.
No overall differences in effectiveness were observed between older and younger patients.
Of patients treated with ERLEADA (n=1073), Grade 3–4 adverse reactions occurred in 39% of patients younger than 65 years, 41% of patients 65–74 years, and 49% of patients 75 years or older. Falls in patients receiving ERLEADA with androgen deprivation therapy was elevated in the elderly, occurring in 8% of patients younger than 65 years, 10% of patients 65–74 years, and 19% of patients 75 years or older.
There is no known specific antidote for apalutamide overdose. In the event of an overdose, stop ERLEADA, undertake general supportive measures until clinical toxicity has been diminished or resolved.
Apalutamide, the active ingredient of ERLEADA, is an androgen receptor inhibitor. The chemical name is (4-[7-(6-Cyano-5-trifluoromethylpyridin-3-yl)-8-oxo-6-thioxo-5,7-diazaspiro[3.4]oct-5-yl]-2-fluoro-N-methylbenzamide). Apalutamide is a white to slightly yellow powder. Apalutamide is practically insoluble in aqueous media over a wide range of pH values.
The molecular weight is 477.44 and molecular formula is C21 H15 F4 N5 O2 S. The structural formula is:
ERLEADA® (apalutamide) is supplied as film-coated tablets for oral administration containing 60 mg of apalutamide. Inactive ingredients of the core tablet are: colloidal anhydrous silica, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-acetate succinate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose.
The tablets are finished with a commercially available film-coating comprising the following excipients: iron oxide black, iron oxide yellow, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, talc, and titanium dioxide.
Apalutamide is an Androgen Receptor (AR) inhibitor that binds directly to the ligand-binding domain of the AR. Apalutamide inhibits AR nuclear translocation, inhibits DNA binding, and impedes AR-mediated transcription. A major metabolite, N-desmethyl apalutamide, is a less potent inhibitor of AR, and exhibited one-third the activity of apalutamide in an in vitro transcriptional reporter assay. Apalutamide administration caused decreased tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis leading to decreased tumor volume in mouse xenograft models of prostate cancer.
The effect of apalutamide 240 mg once daily on the QTc interval was assessed in an open-label, uncontrolled, multi-center, single-arm dedicated QT study in 45 patients with CRPC. The maximum mean QTcF change from baseline was 12.4 ms (2-sided 90% upper CI: 16.0 ms). An exposure-QT analysis suggested a concentration-dependent increase in QTcF for apalutamide and its active metabolite.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.