ERY-TAB- erythromycin tablet, delayed release
Arbor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ERY-TAB® and other antibacterial drugs, ERY-TAB® should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
ERY-TAB® (erythromycin delayed-release tablets) is an antibacterial product containing erythromycin base in a specially enteric-coated tablet. The coating protects the antibiotic from the inactivating effects of gastric acidity and permits efficient absorption of the antibiotic in the small intestine. ERY-TAB® tablets for oral administration are available in three dosage strengths, each white oval tablet containing either 250 mg, 333 mg, or 500 mg of erythromycin as the free base. ERY-TAB® tablets comply with USP Dissolution Test 1.
Erythromycin is produced by a strain of Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly Streptomyces erythraeus) and belongs to the macrolide group of antibiotics. It is basic and readily forms salts with acids. Erythromycin is a white to off-white powder, slightly soluble in water, and soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether. Erythromycin is known chemically as (3R*, 4S*, 5S*, 6R*, 7R*, 9R*, 11R*, 12R*,13S*, 14R*)-4-[(2,6-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-3-O-methyl-α -L-ribo -hexopyranosyl)oxy]-14-ethyl-7,12,13-trihydroxy-3,5,7,9,11,13-hexamethyl-6-[[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-β-D-xylo -hexopyranosyl]oxy]oxacyclotetradecane-2,10-dione. The molecular formula is C37 H67 NO13 , and the molecular weight is 733.94. The structural formula is:
Ammonium hydroxide, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone, diacetylated monoglycerides, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, hypromellose phthalate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, propylene glycol, sodium citrate, sorbitan monooleate, talc, and titanium dioxide.
Orally administered erythromycin base and its salts are readily absorbed in the microbiologically active form. Interindividual variations in the absorption of erythromycin are, however, observed, and some patients do not achieve optimal serum levels. Erythromycin is largely bound to plasma proteins. After absorption, erythromycin diffuses readily into most body fluids. In the absence of meningeal inflammation, low concentrations are normally achieved in the spinal fluid but the passage of the drug across the blood-brain barrier increases in meningitis. Erythromycin crosses the placental barrier, but fetal plasma levels are low. The drug is excreted in human milk. Erythromycin is not removed by peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis.
In the presence of normal hepatic function, erythromycin is concentrated in the liver and is excreted in the bile; the effect of hepatic dysfunction on biliary excretion of erythromycin is not known. After oral administration, less than 5% of the administered dose can be recovered in the active form in the urine.
ERY-TAB® tablets are coated with a polymer whose dissolution is pH dependent. This coating allows for minimal release of erythromycin in acidic environments, e.g., stomach. The tablets are designed for optimal drug release and absorption in the small intestine. In multiple-dose, steady-state studies, ERY-TAB® tablets have demonstrated adequate drug delivery in both fasting and non-fasting conditions. Bioavailability data are available.
Mechanism of Action
Erythromycin acts by inhibition of protein synthesis by binding 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible organisms. It does not affect nucleic acid synthesis.
The major route of resistance is modification of the 23S rRNA in the 50S ribosomal subunit to insensitivity while efflux can also be significant.
Interactions With Other Antimicrobials
Antagonism exists in vitro between erythromycin and clindamycin, lincomycin, and chloramphenicol.
Erythromycin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.
- Corynebacterium diphtheriae
- Corynebacterium minutissimum
- Listeria monocytogenes
- Staphylococcus aureus (resistant organisms may emerge during treatment)
- Streptococcus pneumoniae
- Streptococcus pyogenes
- Bordetella pertussis
- Haemophilus influenzae
- Legionella pneumophila
- Neisseria gonorrhoeae
- Chlamydia trachomatis
- Entamoeba histolytica
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae
- Treponema pallidum
- Ureaplasma urealyticum
The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.
At least 90% of the following bacteria exhibit in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for erythromycin. However, the efficacy of erythromycin in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well controlled clinical trials.
- Viridans group streptococci
- Moraxella catarrhalis
For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ERY-TAB® and other antibacterial drugs, ERY-TAB® should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
ERY-TAB® tablets are indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the diseases listed below:
Upper respiratory tract infections of mild to moderate degree caused by Streptococcus pyogenes ; Streptococcus pneumoniae ; Haemophilus influenzae (when used concomitantly with adequate doses of sulfonamides, since many strains of H. influenzae are not susceptible to the erythromycin concentrations ordinarily achieved). (See appropriate sulfonamide labeling for prescribing information.)
Lower respiratory tract infections of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes.
Respiratory tract infections due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Skin and skin structure infections of mild to moderate severity caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus (resistant staphylococci may emerge during treatment).
Pertussis (whooping cough) caused by Bordetella pertussis. Erythromycin is effective in eliminating the organism from the nasopharynx of infected individuals, rendering them noninfectious. Some clinical studies suggest that erythromycin may be helpful in the prophylaxis of pertussis in exposed susceptible individuals.
Diphtheria: Infections due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae , as an adjunct to antitoxin, to prevent establishment of carriers and to eradicate the organism in carriers.
Erythrasma: In the treatment of infections due to Corynebacterium minutissimum.
Intestinal amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica (oral erythromycins only). Extraenteric amebiasis requires treatment with other agents.
Acute pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Erythrocin™ Lactobionate-I.V. (erythromycin lactobionate for injection, USP) followed by erythromycin base orally, as an alternative drug in treatment of acute pelvic inflammatory disease caused by N. gonorrhoeae in female patients with a history of sensitivity to penicillin. Patients should have a serologic test for syphilis before receiving erythromycin as treatment of gonorrhea and a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after 3 months.
Erythromycins are indicated for treatment of the following infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: conjunctivitis of the newborn, pneumonia of infancy, and urogenital infections during pregnancy. When tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated, erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections in adults due to Chlamydia trachomatis.
When tetracyclines are contraindicated or not tolerated, erythromycin is indicated for the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.
Primary syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. Erythromycin (oral forms only) is an alternative choice of treatment for primary syphilis in patients allergic to the penicillins. In treatment of primary syphilis, spinal fluid should be examined before treatment and as part of the follow-up after therapy.
Legionnaires’ Disease caused by Legionella pneumophila. Although no controlled clinical efficacy studies have been conducted, in vitro and limited preliminary clinical data suggest that erythromycin may be effective in treating Legionnaires’ Disease.
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