Escitalopram (Page 3 of 10)

5.4 Seizures

Although anticonvulsant effects of racemic citalopram have been observed in animal studies, escitalopram oxalate has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a seizure disorder. These patients were excluded from clinical studies during the product’s premarketing testing. In clinical trials of escitalopram oxalate, cases of convulsion have been reported in association with escitalopram oxalate treatment. Like other drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder, escitalopram oxalate should be introduced with care in patients with a history of seizure disorder.

5.5 Activation of Mania or Hypomania

In patients with bipolar disorder, treating a depressive episode with escitalopram oxalate or another antidepressant may precipitate a mixed/manic episode. In placebo-controlled trials of escitalopram oxalate in major depressive disorder, activation of mania/hypomania was reported in one (0.1%) of 715 patients treated with escitalopram oxalate and in none of the 592 patients treated with placebo. One additional case of hypomania has been reported in association with escitalopram oxalate treatment. Activation of mania/hypomania has also been reported in a small proportion of patients with major affective disorders treated with racemic citalopram and other marketed drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Prior to initiating treatment with escitalopram oxalate, screen patients for any personal or family history of bipolar disorder, mania, or hypomania [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3)].

5.6 Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia may occur as a result of treatment with SSRIs and SNRIs, including escitalopram oxalate. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), and was reversible when escitalopram oxalate was discontinued. Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SSRIs and SNRIs. Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume depleted may be at greater risk [ see Geriatric Use ( 8.5)]. Discontinuation of escitalopram oxalate should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted.

Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. Signs and symptoms associated with more severe and/or acute cases have included hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.

5.7 Abnormal Bleeding

SSRIs and SNRIs, including escitalopram oxalate, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anticoagulants may add to the risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to SSRIs and SNRIs use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages.

Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of escitalopram oxalate and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation.

5.8 Interference with Cognitive and Motor Performance

In a study in normal volunteers, escitalopram oxalate 10 mg/day did not produce impairment of intellectual function or psychomotor performance. Because any psychoactive drug may impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, however, patients should be cautioned about operating hazardous machinery, including automobiles, until they are reasonably certain that escitalopram oxalate therapy does not affect their ability to engage in such activities.

5.9 Angle Closure Glaucoma

Angle Closure Glaucoma: The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including escitalopram oxalate may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy.

5.10 Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness

Clinical experience with escitalopram oxalate in patients with certain concomitant systemic illnesses is limited. Caution is advisable in using escitalopram oxalate in patients with diseases or conditions that produce altered metabolism or hemodynamic responses.

Escitalopram oxalate has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable heart disease. Patients with these diagnoses were generally excluded from clinical studies during the product’s premarketing testing.

In subjects with hepatic impairment, clearance of racemic citalopram was decreased and plasma concentrations were increased. The recommended dose of escitalopram oxalate in hepatically impaired patients is 10 mg/day [ see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3) ].

Because escitalopram is extensively metabolized, excretion of unchanged drug in urine is a minor route of elimination. Until adequate numbers of patients with severe renal impairment have been evaluated during chronic treatment with escitalopram oxalate, however, it should be used with caution in such patients [ see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3) ].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Clinical Trial Data Sources

Pediatrics (6 to 17 years)

Adverse events were collected in 576 pediatric patients (286 escitalopram oxalate, 290 placebo) with major depressive disorder in double-blind placebo-controlled studies. Safety and effectiveness of escitalopram oxalate in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age has not been established.

Adults

Adverse events information for escitalopram oxalate was collected from 715 patients with major depressive disorder who were exposed to escitalopram and from 592 patients who were exposed to placebo in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. An additional 284 patients with major depressive disorder were newly exposed to escitalopram in open-label trials. The adverse event information for escitalopram oxalate in patients with GAD was collected from 429 patients exposed to escitalopram and from 427 patients exposed to placebo in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

Adverse events during exposure were obtained primarily by general inquiry and recorded by clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. Consequently, it is not possible to provide a meaningful estimate of the proportion of individuals experiencing adverse events without first grouping similar types of events into a smaller number of standardized event categories. In the tables and tabulations that follow, standard World Health Organization (WHO) terminology has been used to classify reported adverse events.

The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse event of the type listed. An event was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation.

Adverse Events Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment

Major Depressive Disorder

Pediatrics (6 to 17 years)

Adverse events were associated with discontinuation of 3.5% of 286 patients receiving escitalopram oxalate and 1% of 290 patients receiving placebo. The most common adverse event (incidence at least 1% for escitalopram oxalate and greater than placebo) associated with discontinuation was insomnia (1% escitalopram oxalate, 0% placebo).

Adults

Among the 715 depressed patients who received escitalopram oxalate in placebo-controlled trials, 6% discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, as compared to 2% of 592 patients receiving placebo. In two fixed-dose studies, the rate of discontinuation for adverse events in patients receiving 10 mg/day escitalopram oxalate was not significantly different from the rate of discontinuation for adverse events in patients receiving placebo. The rate of discontinuation for adverse events in patients assigned to a fixed dose of 20 mg/day escitalopram oxalate was 10%, which was significantly different from the rate of discontinuation for adverse events in patients receiving 10 mg/day escitalopram oxalate (4%) and placebo (3%). Adverse events that were associated with the discontinuation of at least 1% of patients treated with escitalopram oxalate, and for which the rate was at least twice that of placebo, were nausea (2%) and ejaculation disorder (2% of male patients).

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Adults

Among the 429 GAD patients who received escitalopram oxalate 10 to 20 mg/day in placebo-controlled trials, 8% discontinued treatment due to an adverse event, as compared to 4% of 427 patients receiving placebo. Adverse events that were associated with the discontinuation of at least 1% of patients treated with escitalopram oxalate, and for which the rate was at least twice the placebo rate, were nausea (2%), insomnia (1%), and fatigue (1%).

Incidence of Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials

Major Depressive Disorder

Pediatrics (6 to 17 years)

The overall profile of adverse reactions in pediatric patients was generally similar to that seen in adult studies, as shown in Table 2. However, the following adverse reactions (excluding those which appear in Table 2 and those for which the coded terms were uninformative or misleading) were reported at an incidence of at least 2% for escitalopram oxalate and greater than placebo: back pain, urinary tract infection, vomiting, and nasal congestion.

Adults

The most commonly observed adverse reactions in escitalopram oxalate patients (incidence of approximately 5% or greater and approximately twice the incidence in placebo patients) were insomnia, ejaculation disorder (primarily ejaculatory delay), nausea, sweating increased, fatigue, and somnolence.

Table 2 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent, of treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred among 715 depressed patients who received escitalopram oxalate at doses ranging from 10 to 20 mg/day in placebo-controlled trials. Events included are those occurring in 2% or more of patients treated with escitalopram oxalate and for which the incidence in patients treated with escitalopram oxalate was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.

1 Primarily ejaculatory delay.

2 Denominator used was for males only (N=225 escitalopram oxalate; N=188 placebo).

3 Denominator used was for females only (N=490 escitalopram oxalate; N=404 placebo).

TABLE 2
Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions observed with a frequency of ≥ 2% and greater than placebo for Major Depressive Disorder
Adverse Reaction Escitalopram Oxalate Placebo
(N=715) % (N=592) %
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders
Dry Mouth 6% 5%
Sweating Increased 5% 2%
Central & Peripheral Nervous System Disorders
Dizziness 5% 3%
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Nausea 15% 7%
Diarrhea 8% 5%
Constipation 3% 1%
Indigestion 3% 1%
Abdominal Pain 2% 1%
General
Influenza-like Symptoms 5% 4%
Fatigue 5% 2%
Psychiatric Disorders
Insomnia 9% 4%
Somnolence 6% 2%
Appetite Decreased 3% 1%
Libido Decreased 3% 1%
Respiratory System Disorders
Rhinitis 5% 4%
Sinusitis 3% 2%
Urogenital
Ejaculation Disorder 1,2 9% <1%
Impotence 2 3% <1%
Anorgasmia 3 2% <1%

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Adults

The most commonly observed adverse reactions in escitalopram oxalate patients (incidence of approximately 5% or greater and approximately twice the incidence in placebo patients) were nausea, ejaculation disorder (primarily ejaculatory delay), insomnia, fatigue, decreased libido, and anorgasmia.

Table 3 enumerates the incidence, rounded to the nearest percent of treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred among 429 GAD patients who received escitalopram oxalate 10 to 20 mg/day in placebo-controlled trials. Events included are those occurring in 2% or more of patients treated with escitalopram oxalate and for which the incidence in patients treated with escitalopram oxalate was greater than the incidence in placebo-treated patients.

1 Primarily ejaculatory delay.

2 Denominator used was for males only (N=182 escitalopram oxalate; N=195 placebo).

3 Denominator used was for females only (N=247 escitalopram oxalate; N=232 placebo).

TABLE 3

Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions observed with a frequency of ≥ 2% and greater than placebo for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Adverse Reactions Escitalopram Oxalate Placebo
(N=429) % (N=427) %
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders
Dry Mouth 9% 5%
Sweating Increased 4% 1%
Central & Peripheral Nervous System Disorders
Headache 24% 17%
Paresthesia 2% 1%
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Nausea 18% 8%
Diarrhea 8% 6%
Constipation 5% 4%
Indigestion 3% 2%
Vomiting 3% 1%
Abdominal Pain 2% 1%
Flatulence 2% 1%
Toothache 2% 0%
General
Fatigue 8% 2%
Influenza-like Symptoms 5% 4%
Musculoskeletal System Disorder
Neck/Shoulder Pain 3% 1%
Psychiatric Disorders
Somnolence 13% 7%
Insomnia 12% 6%
Libido Decreased 7% 2%
Dreaming Abnormal 3% 2%
Appetite Decreased 3% 1%
Lethargy 3% 1%
Respiratory System Disorders
Yawning 2% 1%
Urogenital
Ejaculation Disorder 1,2 14% 2%
Anorgasmia 3 6% <1%
Menstrual Disorder 2% 1%

Dose Dependency of Adverse Reactions

The potential dose dependency of common adverse reactions (defined as an incidence rate of ≥5% in either the 10 mg or 20 mg escitalopram oxalate groups) was examined on the basis of the combined incidence of adverse reactions in two fixed-dose trials.

The overall incidence rates of adverse events in 10 mg escitalopram oxalate-treated patients (66%) was similar to that of the placebo-treated patients (61%), while the incidence rate in 20 mg/day escitalopram oxalate-treated patients was greater (86%). Table 4 shows common adverse reactions that occurred in the 20 mg/day escitalopram oxalate group with an incidence that was approximately twice that of the 10 mg/day escitalopram oxalate group and approximately twice that of the placebo group.

TABLE 4

Incidence of Common Adverse Reactions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

Adverse Reaction Placebo 10 mg/day 20 mg/day
(N=311) Escitalopram Oxalate Escitalopram Oxalate
(N=310) (N=125)
Insomnia 4% 7% 14%
Diarrhea 5% 6% 14%
Dry Mouth 3% 4% 9%
Somnolence 1% 4% 9%
Dizziness 2% 4% 7%
Sweating Increased <1% 3% 8%
Constipation 1% 3% 6%
Fatigue 2% 2% 6%
Indigestion 1% 2% 6%

Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction with SSRIs

Although changes in sexual desire, sexual performance, and sexual satisfaction often occur as manifestations of a psychiatric disorder, they may also be a consequence of pharmacologic treatment. In particular, some evidence suggests that SSRIs can cause such untoward sexual experiences.

Reliable estimates of the incidence and severity of untoward experiences involving sexual desire, performance, and satisfaction are difficult to obtain, however, in part because patients and physicians may be reluctant to discuss them. Accordingly, estimates of the incidence of untoward sexual experience and performance cited in product labeling are likely to underestimate their actual incidence.

TABLE 5

Incidence of Sexual Side Effects in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials

Adverse Event Escitalopram Oxalate Placebo
In Males Only
(N=407) (N=383)
Ejaculation Disorder (primarily ejaculatory delay) 12% 1%
Libido Decreased 6% 2%
Impotence 2% <1%
In Females Only
(N=737) (N=636)
Libido Decreased 3% 1%
Anorgasmia 3% <1%

There are no adequately designed studies examining sexual dysfunction with escitalopram treatment.

Priapism has been reported with all SSRIs.

While it is difficult to know the precise risk of sexual dysfunction associated with the use of SSRIs, physicians should routinely inquire about such possible side effects.

Vital Sign Changes

Escitalopram oxalate and placebo groups were compared with respect to ( 1) mean change from baseline in vital signs (pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure) and ( 2) the incidence of patients meeting criteria for potentially clinically significant changes from baseline in these variables. These analyses did not reveal any clinically important changes in vital signs associated with escitalopram oxalate treatment. In addition, a comparison of supine and standing vital sign measures in subjects receiving escitalopram oxalate indicated that escitalopram oxalate treatment is not associated with orthostatic changes.

Weight Changes

Patients treated with escitalopram oxalate in controlled trials did not differ from placebo-treated patients with regard to clinically important change in body weight.

Laboratory Changes

Escitalopram oxalate and placebo groups were compared with respect to ( 1) mean change from baseline in various serum chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis variables, and ( 2) the incidence of patients meeting criteria for potentially clinically significant changes from baseline in these variables. These analyses revealed no clinically important changes in laboratory test parameters associated with escitalopram oxalate treatment.

ECG Changes

Electrocardiograms from escitalopram oxalate (N=625) and placebo (N=527) groups were compared with respect to outliers defined as subjects with QTc changes over 60 msec from baseline or absolute values over 500 msec post-dose, and subjects with heart rate increases to over 100 bpm or decreases to less than 50 bpm with a 25% change from baseline (tachycardic or bradycardic outliers, respectively). None of the patients in the escitalopram oxalate group had a QTcF interval >500 msec or a prolongation >60 msec compared to 0.2% of patients in the placebo group. The incidence of tachycardic outliers was 0.2% in the escitalopram oxalate and the placebo group. The incidence of bradycardic outliers was 0.5% in the escitalopram oxalate group and 0.2% in the placebo group.

QTcF interval was evaluated in a randomized, placebo and active (moxifloxacin 400 mg) controlled cross-over, escalating multipledose study in 113 healthy subjects. The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference from placebo arm were 4.5 (6.4) and 10.7 (12.7) msec for 10 mg and supratherapeutic 30 mg escitalopram given once daily, respectively. Based on the established exposure-response relationship, the predicted QTcF change from placebo arm (95% confidence interval) under the Cmax for the dose of 20 mg is 6.6 (7.9) msec. Escitalopram 30 mg given once daily resulted in mean Cmax of 1.7-fold higher than the mean Cmax for the maximum recommended therapeutic dose at steady state (20 mg). The exposure under supratherapeutic 30 mg dose is similar to the steady state concentrations expected in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers following a therapeutic dose of 20 mg.

Other Reactions Observed During the Premarketing Evaluation of Escitalopram Oxalate

Following is a list of treatment-emergent adverse events, as defined in the introduction to the ADVERSE REACTIONS section, reported by the 1428 patients treated with escitalopram oxalate for periods of up to one year in double-blind or open-label clinical trials during its premarketing evaluation. The listing does not include those events already listed in Tables 2 & 3, those events for which a drug cause was remote and at a rate less than 1% or lower than placebo, those events which were so general as to be uninformative, and those events reported only once which did not have a substantial probability of being acutely life threatening. Events are categorized by body system. Events of major clinical importance are described in the Warnings and Precautions section ( 5).

Cardiovascular — hypertension, palpitation.

Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders — light-headed feeling, migraine.

Gastrointestinal Disorders — abdominal cramp, heartburn, gastroenteritis.

General — allergy, chest pain, fever, hot flushes, pain in limb.

Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders — increased weight.

Musculoskeletal System Disorders — arthralgia, myalgia jaw stiffness.

Psychiatric Disorders — appetite increased, concentration impaired, irritability.

Reproductive Disorders/Female — menstrual cramps, menstrual disorder.

Respiratory System Disorders — bronchitis, coughing, nasal congestion, sinus congestion, sinus headache.

Skin and Appendages Disorders — rash.

Special Senses — vision blurred, tinnitus.

Urinary System Disorders — urinary frequency, urinary tract infection.

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