Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than 3 years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B-12) caused by hypo-or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed.
Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.
For patients expected to be on prolonged treatment or who take PPIs with medications such as digoxin or drugs that may cause hypomagnesemia (e.g., diuretics), health care professionals may consider monitoring magnesium levels prior to initiation of PPI treatment and periodically [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Drugs which induce CYP2C19 or CYP3A4 (such as St. John’s Wort or rifampin) can substantially decrease esomeprazole concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Avoid concomitant use of esomeprazole magnesium with St. John’s Wort or rifampin.
Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop esomeprazole treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose; see methotrexate prescribing information) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In high-dose methotrexate administration a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients [see Drug Interactions (7)].
PPI use is associated with an increased risk of fundic gland polyps that increases with long-term use, especially beyond one year. Most PPI users who developed fundic gland polyps were asymptomatic and fundic gland polyps were identified incidentally on endoscopy. Use the shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.
- The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in labeling:
- Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Clostridium difficile -Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Bone Fracture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12) Deficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
- Hypomagnesemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
- Fundic Gland Polyps [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety of esomeprazole magnesium was evaluated in over 15,000 patients (aged 18 to 84 years) in clinical trials worldwide including over 8,500 patients in the United States and over 6,500 patients in Europe and Canada. Over 2,900 patients were treated in long-term studies for up to 6 to 12 months.
The safety in the treatment of healing of EE in adults was assessed in four randomized comparative clinical trials, which included 1,240 patients who received esomeprazole magnesium 20 mg once daily, 2,434 patients on esomeprazole magnesium 40 mg once daily, and 3,008 patients on omeprazole 20 mg once daily. The most frequently occurring adverse reactions (at least 1%) in all three groups were headache (5.5%, 5%, and 3.8%, respectively) and diarrhea (no difference among the three groups). Nausea, flatulence, abdominal pain, constipation, and dry mouth occurred at similar rates among patients taking esomeprazole magnesium or omeprazole.
Less common adverse reactions with an incidence of less than 1% are listed below by body system:
Body as a Whole: abdomen enlarged, allergic reaction, asthenia, back pain, chest pain, substernal chest pain, facial edema, peripheral edema, hot flushes, fatigue, fever, flu-like disorder, generalized edema, leg edema, malaise, pain, rigors;
Cardiovascular: flushing, hypertension, tachycardia;
Gastrointestinal: bowel irregularity, constipation aggravated, dyspepsia, dysphagia, dysplasia GI, epigastric pain, eructation, esophageal disorder, frequent stools, gastroenteritis, GI hemorrhage, GI symptoms not otherwise specified, hiccup, melena, mouth disorder, pharynx disorder, rectal disorder, serum gastrin increased, tongue disorder, tongue edema, ulcerative stomatitis, vomiting;
Hearing: earache, tinnitus;
Hematologic: anemia, anemia hypochromic, cervical lymphadenopathy, epistaxis, leukocytosis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia;
Hepatic: bilirubinemia, hepatic function abnormal, SGOT increased, SGPT increased;
Metabolic/Nutritional: glycosuria, hyperuricemia, hyponatremia, increased alkaline phosphatase, thirst, vitamin B12 deficiency, weight increase, weight decrease;
Musculoskeletal: arthralgia, arthritis aggravated, arthropathy, cramps, fibromyalgia syndrome, hernia, polymyalgia rheumatica;
Nervous System/Psychiatric: anorexia, apathy, appetite increased, confusion, depression aggravated, dizziness, hypertonia, nervousness, hypoesthesia, impotence, insomnia, migraine, migraine aggravated, paresthesia, sleep disorder, somnolence, tremor, vertigo, visual field defect;
Reproductive: dysmenorrhea, menstrual disorder, vaginitis;
Respiratory: asthma aggravated, coughing, dyspnea, larynx edema, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis;
Skin and Appendages: acne, angioedema, dermatitis, pruritus, pruritus ani, rash, rash erythematous, rash maculo-papular, skin inflammation, sweating increased, urticaria;
Special Senses: otitis media, parosmia, taste loss, taste perversion;
Urogenital: abnormal urine, albuminuria, cystitis, dysuria, fungal infection, hematuria, micturition frequency, moniliasis, genital moniliasis, polyuria;
Visual: conjunctivitis, vision abnormal.
The following potentially clinically significant laboratory changes in clinical trials, irrespective of relationship to esomeprazole magnesium, were reported in 1% or less of patients: increased creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, ALT, AST, hemoglobin, white blood cell count, platelets, serum gastrin, potassium, sodium, thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. Decreases were seen in hemoglobin, white blood cell count, platelets, potassium, sodium, and thyroxine.
Endoscopic findings that were reported as adverse reactions include: duodenitis, esophagitis, esophageal stricture, esophageal ulceration, esophageal varices, gastric ulcer, gastritis, hernia, benign polyps or nodules, Barrett’s esophagus, and mucosal discoloration.
The incidence of adverse reactions during 6-month trials for the maintenance of healing of EE with esomeprazole magnesium 20 mg once daily was similar to placebo. There were no differences in types of adverse reactions seen during maintenance treatment up to 12 months compared to short-term treatment.
Two placebo-controlled studies were conducted in 710 adult patients for the treatment of symptomatic GERD. The most common adverse reactions that were reported were: diarrhea (4%), headache (4%), and abdominal pain (4%).
Combination Treatment with Esomeprazole Magnesium, Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin
In clinical trials of H. pylori eradication of to reduce duodenal ulcer recurrence, no additional adverse reactions specific to the combination of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were observed and were similar to those observed with esomeprazole magnesium, amoxicillin, or clarithromycin alone. The most frequently reported adverse reactions for patients who received esomeprazole magnesium, amoxicillin and clarithromycin for 10 days were diarrhea (9%), taste perversion (4%), and abdominal pain (4%). No adverse reactions were observed at higher rates with esomeprazole magnesium, amoxicillin and clarithromycin than were observed with esomeprazole magnesium alone.
In clinical trials using of esomeprazole magnesium, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, no additional increased laboratory abnormalities particular to these drug combinations were observed.
For more information on adverse reactions and laboratory changes with amoxicillin or clarithromycin, refer to Adverse Reactions section of the respective prescribing information.
1 Year to 17 Years of Age
The safety of esomeprazole magnesium was evaluated in 316 pediatric and adolescent patients aged 1 year to 17 years in four clinical trials for the treatment of symptomatic GERD [see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. In 109 pediatric patients aged 1 year to 11 years, the most frequently reported (at least 1%) treatment-related adverse reactions in these patients were diarrhea (3%), headache (2%) and somnolence (2%). In 149 pediatric patients aged 12 years to 17 years the most frequently reported adverse reactions (at least 2%) were headache (8%), abdominal pain (3%), diarrhea (2%), and nausea (2%).
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