Esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin triple therapy has been shown to be active against most strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in vit ro and in clinical infections [see Indications and Usage (1) and Clinical Studies (14)].
Helicobacter pylori: Susceptibility testing of H. pylori isolates was performed for amoxicillin and clarithromycin using agar dilution methodology, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined.
Pretreatment Resistance: Clarithromycin pretreatment resistance rate (MIC ≥ 1 mcg/mL) to H. pylori was 15% (66/445) at baseline in all treatment groups combined. A total of > 99% (394/395) of patients had H. pylori isolates that were considered to be susceptible (MIC ≤ 0.25 mcg/mL) to amoxicillin at baseline. One patient had a baseline H. pylori isolate with an amoxicillin MIC = 0.5 mcg/mL.
Clarithromycin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriologic Outcomes: The baseline H. pylori clarithromycin susceptibility results and the H. pylori eradication results at the Day 38 visit are shown in the Table 10:
Includes only patients with pretreatment and post-treatment clarithromycin susceptibility test results
Susceptible (S) MIC ≤ 0.25 mcg/mL, Intermediate (I) MIC = 0.5 mcg/mL, Resistant (R) MIC ≥ 1.0 mcg/mL
|Clarithromycin Pretreatment Results||H. pylori negative (Eradicated)||H. pylori positive (Not Eradicated) Post-treatment susceptibility results|
Patients not eradicated of H. pylori following triple therapy with esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules, amoxicillin and clarithromycin will likely have clarithromycin resistant H. pylori isolates. Therefore, clarithromycin susceptibility testing should be done, when possible. Patients with clarithromycin resistant H. pylori should not be re-treated with a clarithromycin-containing regimen.
Amoxicillin Susceptibility Test Results and Clinical/Bacteriological Outcomes:
In patients treated with esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules, amoxicillin and clarithromycin clinical trials, 83% (176/212) of the patients who had pretreatment amoxicillin susceptible MICs (≤ 0.25 mcg/mL) were eradicated of H. pylori , and 17% (36/212) were not eradicated of H. pylori. Of the 36 patients who were not eradicated of H. pylori , 16 had no post-treatment susceptibility test results and 20 had post-treatment H. pylori isolates with amoxicillin susceptible MICs. Fifteen of the patients who were not eradicated of H. pylori also had post-treatment H. pylori isolates with clarithromycin resistant MICs. There were no patients with H. pylori isolates who developed treatment emergent resistance to amoxicillin.
Susceptibility Test for Helicobacter pylori: For susceptibility testing information about Helicobacter pylori, see Microbiology section in prescribing information for clarithromycin and amoxicillin.
Effects on Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology: Decreased gastric acidity due to any means, including proton pump inhibitors, increases gastric counts of bacteria normally present in the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment with PPIs may lead to slightly increased risk of gastrointestinal infections such as Salmonella and Campylobacter and possibly Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients.
CYP2C19, a polymorphic enzyme, is involved in the metabolism of esomeprazole. The CYP2C19*1 allele is fully functional while the CYP2C19*2 and *3 alleles are nonfunctional. There are other alleles associated with no or reduced enzymatic function. Patients carrying two fully functional alleles are extensive metabolizers and those carrying two loss-of-function alleles are poor metabolizers. The systemic exposure to esomeprazole varies with a patient’s metabolism status: poor metabolizers > intermediate metabolizers > extensive metabolizers. Approximately 3% of Caucasians and 15 to 20% of Asians are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers.
Systemic esomeprazole exposures were modestly higher (approximately 17%) in CYP2C19 intermediate metabolizers (IM; n=6) compared to extensive metabolizers (EM; n=17) of CYP2C19. Similar pharmacokinetic differences were noted across these genotypes in a study of Chinese healthy subjects that included 7 EMs and 11 IMs. There is very limited pharmacokinetic information for poor metabolizers (PM) from these studies.
At steady state following once daily administration of esomeprazole 40 mg, the ratio of AUC in poor metabolizers to AUC in the rest of the population (EMs) is approximately 1.5. This change in exposure is not considered clinically meaningful.
The carcinogenic potential of esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules was assessed using studies of omeprazole, of which esomeprazole is an enantiomer. In two 24-month oral carcinogenicity studies in rats, omeprazole at daily doses of 1.7, 3.4, 13.8, 44, and 140.8 mg/kg/day (about 0.4 to 34 times the human dose of 40 mg/day expressed on a body surface area basis) produced gastric ECL cell carcinoids in a dose-related manner in both male and female rats; the incidence of this effect was markedly higher in female rats, which had higher blood levels of omeprazole. Gastric carcinoids seldom occur in the untreated rat. In addition, ECL cell hyperplasia was present in all treated groups of both sexes. In one of these studies, female rats were treated with 13.8 mg omeprazole/kg/day (about 3.4 times the human dose of 40 mg/day on a body surface area basis) for 1 year, then followed for an additional year without the drug. No carcinoids were seen in these rats. An increased incidence of treatment-related ECL cell hyperplasia was observed at the end of 1 year (94% treated vs. 10% controls). By the second year the difference between treated and control rats was much smaller (46% vs. 26%) but still showed more hyperplasia in the treated group. Gastric adenocarcinoma was seen in one rat (2%). No similar tumor was seen in male or female rats treated for 2 years. For this strain of rat no similar tumor has been noted historically, but a finding involving only one tumor is difficult to interpret. A 78-week mouse carcinogenicity study of omeprazole did not show increased tumor occurrence, but the study was not conclusive.
Esomeprazole was negative in the Ames mutation test, in the in vivo rat bone marrow cell chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo mouse micronucleus test. Esomeprazole, however, was positive in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test. Omeprazole was positive in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test, the in vivo mouse bone marrow cell chromosome aberration test, and the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
The potential effects of esomeprazole on fertility and reproductive performance were assessed using omeprazole studies. Omeprazole at oral doses up to 138 mg/kg/day in rats (about 34 times the human dose of 40 mg/day on a body surface area basis) was found to have no effect on reproductive performance of parental animals.
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