- Risk Summary
- Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole and limited data suggest that omeprazole may be present in human milk. There are no clinical data on the effects of esomeprazole on the breastfed infant or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for esomeprazole magnesium and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from esomeprazole magnesium or from the underlying maternal condition.
- The safety and effectiveness of esomeprazole magnesium have been established in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age for short-term treatment (up to eight weeks) of GERD.
- 1 to 17 years of age
- Use of esomeprazole magnesium in pediatric and adolescent patients 1 to 17 years of age for short-term treatment (up to eight weeks) of GERD is supported by extrapolation of results from adequate and well-controlled studies for adults and safety and pharmacokinetic studies performed in pediatric and adolescent patients [see Dosage and Administration (2), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3), and Clinical Studies (14.3)]. The safety and effectiveness of esomeprazole magnesium for other pediatric uses have not been established.
- Juvenile Animal Data
- In a juvenile rat toxicity study, esomeprazole was administered with both magnesium and strontium salts at oral doses about 34 to 68 times a daily human dose of 40 mg based on body surface area. Increases in death were seen at the high dose, and at all doses of esomeprazole, there were decreases in body weight, body weight gain, femur weight and femur length, and decreases in overall growth [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
- Of the total number of patients who received esomeprazole magnesium in clinical trials, 1459 were 65 to 74 years of age and 354 patients were ≥ 75 years of age.
- No overall differences in safety and efficacy were observed between the elderly and younger individuals, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
A single oral dose of esomeprazole at 510 mg/kg (about 124 times the human dose on a body surface area basis), was lethal to rats. The major signs of acute toxicity were reduced motor activity, changes in respiratory frequency, tremor, ataxia, and intermittent clonic convulsions.
The symptoms described in connection with deliberate esomeprazole magnesium overdose (limited experience of doses in excess of 240 mg/day) are transient. Single doses of 80 mg of esomeprazole were uneventful. Reports of overdosage with omeprazole in humans may also be relevant. Doses ranged up to 2,400 mg (120 times the usual recommended clinical dose). Manifestations were variable, but included confusion, drowsiness, blurred vision, tachycardia, nausea, diaphoresis, flushing, headache, dry mouth, and other adverse reactions similar to those seen in normal clinical experience (see omeprazole package insert – Adverse Reactions). No specific antidote for esomeprazole is known. Since esomeprazole is extensively protein bound, it is not expected to be removed by dialysis. In the event of overdosage, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.
As with the management of any overdose, the possibility of multiple drug ingestion should be considered. For current information on treatment of any drug overdose contact a Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.
The active ingredient in the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole magnesium delayed-release capsules, USP for oral administration is 5-Methoxy-2-[(S)-[(4-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-2-pyridyl)methyl]sulfinyl] benzimidazole, magnesium salt (2:1). Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole, which is a mixture of the S- and R- isomers. (Initial U.S. approval of esomeprazole magnesium: 2001). Its molecular formula is C34 H36 MgN6 O6 S2 with molecular weight of 713.12 on an anhydrous basis. The structural formula is:
The magnesium salt is a white to slightly colored powder. It is soluble or slightly soluble in methanol and practically insoluble in water and heptane. The stability of esomeprazole magnesium, USP is a function of pH; it rapidly degrades in acidic media, but it has acceptable stability under alkaline conditions. At pH 6.8 (buffer), the half-life of the magnesium salt is about 19 hours at 25°C and about 8 hours at 37°C.
Esomeprazole Magnesium Delayed-Release Capsules, USP are supplied in delayed-release capsules. Each delayed-release capsule contains 20 mg, or 40 mg of esomeprazole (present as 22.25 mg, or 44.50 mg esomeprazole magnesium) in the form of enteric-coated granules with the following inactive ingredients: hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, methacrylic acid copolymer dispersion, mono and di glycerides, polysorbate 80, sugar spheres (corn starch and sucrose), talc, and triethyl citrate. The capsule shells have the following inactive ingredients: D&C Red #28, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Red #40, ferric oxide black, gelatin, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, shellac, and titanium dioxide.
Esomeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that suppresses gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the H+ /K+ -ATPase in the gastric parietal cell. The S- and R-isomers of omeprazole are protonated and converted in the acidic compartment of the parietal cell forming the active inhibitor, the achiral sulphenamide. By acting specifically on the proton pump, esomeprazole blocks the final step in acid production, thus reducing gastric acidity. This effect is dose-related up to a daily dose of 20 to 40 mg and leads to inhibition of gastric acid secretion.
The effect of esomeprazole magnesium on intragastric pH was determined in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease in two separate studies. In the first study of 36 patients, esomeprazole magnesium 40 mg and 20 mg capsules were administered over 5 days. The results are shown in the Table 3:
- Table 3: Effect on Intragastric pH on Day 5 (N = 36)
| || || |
| || || |
| || || |
| || || |
| || || |
- 1. Gastric pH was measured over a 24 hour period
- 2. p < 0.01 esomeprazole magnesium 40 mg vs. esomeprazole magnesium 20 mg
In a second study, the effect on intragastric pH of esomeprazole magnesium 40 mg administered once daily over a five day period was similar to the first study, (% time with pH > 4 was 68% or 16.3 hours).
Serum Gastrin Effects
The effect of esomeprazole magnesium on serum gastrin concentrations was evaluated in approximately 2,700 patients in clinical trials up to 8 weeks and in over 1,300 patients for up to 6 to 12 months. The mean fasting gastrin level increased in a dose-related manner. This increase reached a plateau within two to three months of therapy and returned to baseline levels within four weeks after discontinuation of therapy.
Increased gastrin causes enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and increased serum Chromogranin A (CgA) levels. The increased CgA levels may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop esomeprazole treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high.
Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) Cell Effects
In 24 month carcinogenicity studies of omeprazole in rats, a dose-related significant occurrence of gastric ECL cell carcinoid tumors and ECL cell hyperplasia was observed in both male and female animals [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)]. Carcinoid tumors have also been observed in rats subjected to fundectomy or long-term treatment with other proton pump inhibitors or high doses of H2 -receptor antagonists.
Human gastric biopsy specimens have been obtained from more than 3,000 patients (both children and adults) treated with omeprazole in long-term clinical trials. The incidence of ECL cell hyperplasia in these studies increased with time; however, no case of ECL cell carcinoids, dysplasia, or neoplasia has been found in these patients.
In over 1,000 patients treated with esomeprazole magnesium (10, 20 or 40 mg/day) up to 6 to 12 months, the prevalence of ECL cell hyperplasia increased with time and dose. No patient developed ECL cell carcinoids, dysplasia, or neoplasia in the gastric mucosa.
Esomeprazole magnesium had no effect on thyroid function when given in oral doses of 20 or 40 mg for 4 weeks. Other effects of esomeprazole magnesium on the endocrine system were assessed using omeprazole studies. Omeprazole given in oral doses of 30 or 40 mg for 2 to 4 weeks had no effect on carbohydrate metabolism, circulating levels of parathyroid hormone, cortisol, estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, cholecystokinin, or secretin.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.