ESTRADIOL (Page 4 of 6)

7. Hypocalcemia

Estrogens should be used with caution in individuals with severe hypocalcemia.

8. Exacerbation of endometriosis

Endometriosis may be exacerbated with administration of estrogens. A few cases of malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants have been reported in women treated post-hysterectomy with estrogen alone therapy. For patients known to have residual endometriosis post-hysterectomy, the addition of progestin should be considered.

9. Exacerbation of other conditions

Estrogens may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraine or porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and hepatic hemangiomas and should be used with caution in women with these conditions.

B. Patient Information

Physicians are advised to discuss the PATIENT INFORMATION leaflet with patients for whom they prescribe Estradiol Tablets.

C. Laboratory Tests

Estrogen administration should be initiated at the lowest dose approved for the indication and then guided by clinical response rather than by serum hormone levels (e.g., estradiol, FSH) (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section).

D. Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

1.
Accelerated prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation time; increased platelet count; increased factors II, VII antigen, VIII antigen, VIII coagulant activity, IX, X, XII, VII-X complex, II-VII-X complex, and beta-thromboglobulin; decreased levels of anti-factor Xa and antithrombin III, decreased antithrombin III activity; increased levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen activity; increased plasminogen antigen and activity.
2.
Increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T4 levels (by column or by radioimmunoassay) or T3 levels by radioimmunoassay. T3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG. Free T4 and free T3 concentrations are unaltered. Patients on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone.
3.
Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum, i.e., corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), leading to increased circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids, respectively. Free hormone concentrations may be decreased. Other plasma proteins may be increased (angiotensinogen/renin substrate, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin).
4.
Increased plasma HDL and HDL2 subfraction concentrations, reduced LDL cholesterol concentration, increased triglycerides levels.
5.
Impaired glucose tolerance.
6.
Reduced response to metyrapone test.

E. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term continuous administration of estrogen, with and without progestin, in women with and without a uterus, has shown an increased risk of endometrial cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer (See BOXED WARNINGS , WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).

Long term continuous administration of natural and synthetic estrogens in certain animal species increases the frequency of carcinomas of the breast, uterus, cervix, vagina, testis, and liver.

F. Pregnancy Category X

Estradiol Tablets should not be used during pregnancy (See CONTRAINDICATIONS).

G. Nursing Mothers

Estrogen administration to nursing mothers has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the milk. Detectable amounts of estrogens have been identified in the milk of mothers receiving this drug. Caution should be exercised when estradiol is administered to a nursing woman.

H. Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Large and repeated doses of estrogen over an extended period of time have been shown to accelerate epiphyseal closure, resulting in short adult stature if treatment is initiated before the completion of physiologic puberty in normally developing children. In patients in whom bone growth is not complete, periodic monitoring of bone maturation and effects on epiphyseal centers is recommended.

Estrogen treatment of prepubertal children also induces premature breast development and vaginal cornification, and may potentially induce vaginal bleeding in girls. In boys, estrogen treatment may modify the normal pubertal process. All other physiological and adverse reactions shown to be associated with estrogen treatment of adults could potentially occur in the pediatric population, including thromboembolic disorders and growth stimulation of certain tumors. Therefore, estrogens should only be administered to pediatric patients when clearly indicated and the lowest effective dose should always be utilized.

I. Geriatric Use.

The safety and efficacy of estradiol tablets in geriatric patients has not been established. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greatest frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

In the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study, including 4,532 women 65 years of age and older, followed for an average of 4 years, 82% (n = 3,729) were 65 to 74 while 18% (n = 803) were 75 and over. Most women (80%) had no prior hormone therapy use. Women treated with conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate were reported to have a two-fold increase in the risk of developing probable dementia. Alzheimer’s disease was the most common classification of probable dementia in both the conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate group and the placebo group. Ninety percent of the cases of probable dementia occurred in the 54% of women that were older than 70 (See WARNINGS, Dementia).

It is unknown whether these findings apply to estrogen alone therapy.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

See BOXED WARNINGS , WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS.

The following additional adverse reactions have been reported with estrogen and/or progestin therapy.

1. Genitourinary system

Changes in vaginal bleeding pattern and abnormal withdrawal bleeding or flow; breakthrough bleeding, spotting, dysmenorrhea

Increase in size of uterine leiomyomata

Vaginitis, including vaginal candidiasis

Change in amount of cervical secretion

Changes in cervical ectropion

Ovarian cancer; endometrial hyperplasia; endometrial cancer

2. Breasts

Tenderness, enlargement, pain, nipple discharge, galactorrhea; fibrocystic breast changes; breast cancer

3. Cardiovascular

Deep and superficial venous thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; thrombophlebitis; myocardial infarction; stroke; increase in blood pressure

4. Gastrointestinal

Nausea, vomiting

Abdominal cramps, bloating

Cholestatic jaundice

Increased incidence of gallbladder disease

Pancreatitis

Enlargement of hepatic hemangiomas

5. Skin

Chloasma or melasma that may persist when drug is discontinued

Erythema multiforme

Erythema nodosum

Hemorrhagic eruption

Loss of scalp hair

Hirsutism

Pruritus, rash

6. Eyes

Retinal vascular thrombosis

Steepening of corneal curvature

Intolerance to contact lenses

7. Central Nervous System

Headache, migraine, dizziness

Mental depression

Chorea

Nervousness, mood disturbances, irritability

Exacerbation of epilepsy

Dementia

8. Miscellaneous

Increase or decrease in weight

Reduced carbohydrate tolerance

Aggravation of porphyria

Edema

Arthralgias; leg cramps

Changes in libido

Urticaria

Angioedema

Anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions

Hypocalcemia

Exacerbation of asthma

Increased triglycerides

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Epic Pharma, LLC at 1-888-374-2791, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

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