ESZOPICLONE

ESZOPICLONE — eszopiclone tablet, film coated
A-S Medication Solutions

WARNING: COMPLEX SLEEP BEHAVIORS

Complex sleep behaviors including sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and engaging in other activities while not fully awake may occur following use of eszopiclone. Some of these events may result in serious injuries, including death. Discontinue eszopiclone immediately if a patient experiences a complex sleep behavior [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Eszopiclone tablets are indicated for the treatment of insomnia. In controlled outpatient and sleep laboratory studies, eszopiclone tablets administered at bedtime decreased sleep latency and improved sleep maintenance.

The clinical trials performed in support of efficacy were up to 6 months in duration. The final formal assessments of sleep latency and maintenance were performed at 4 weeks in the 6-week study (adults only), at the end of both 2-week studies (elderly only) and at the end of the 6-month study (adults only).

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Use the lowest effective dose for the patient.

2.1 Dosage in Adults

The recommended starting dose is 1 mg. Dosing can be raised to 2 mg or 3 mg if clinically indicated. In some patients, the higher morning blood levels of eszopiclone tablets following use of the 2 mg or 3 mg dose increase the risk of next day impairment of driving and other activities that require full alertness [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. The total dose of eszopiclone tablets should not exceed 3 mg, once daily immediately before bedtime [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

2.2 Geriatric or Debilitated Patients

The total dose of eszopiclone tablets should not exceed 2 mg in elderly or debilitated patients.

2.3 Patients with Severe Hepatic Impairment, or Taking Potent CYP3A4 Inhibitors

In patients with severe hepatic impairment, or in patients coadministered eszopiclone tablets with potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, the total dose of eszopiclone tablets should not exceed 2 mg [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

2.4 Use with CNS Depressants

Dosage adjustments may be necessary when eszopiclone tablets are combined with other central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs because of the potentially additive effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

2.5 Administration with Food

Taking eszopiclone tablets with or immediately after a heavy, high-fat meal results in slower absorption and would be expected to reduce the effect of eszopiclone tablets on sleep latency [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Eszopiclone tablets USP are available in 1 mg, 2 mg and 3 mg strengths for oral administration.

Eszopiclone 1 mg tablets are light blue colored, film-coated, round shaped, biconvex tablets with debossed ‘K’ on one side and ‘83’ on other side.

Eszopiclone 2 mg tablets are white to off-white, film-coated, round shaped, biconvex tablets with debossed ‘K’ on one side and ‘84’ on other side.

Eszopiclone 3 mg tablets are blue colored, film-coated, round shaped, biconvex tablets with debossed ‘K’ on one side and ‘85’ on other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Eszopiclone tablets are contraindicated in patients who have experienced complex sleep behaviors after taking Eszopiclone tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
  • Eszopiclone tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to eszopiclone. Hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis and angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Complex Sleep Behaviors

Complex sleep behaviors including sleep-walking, sleep-driving, and engaging in other activities while not fully awake may occur following the first or any subsequent use of eszopiclone. Patients can be seriously injured or injure others during complex sleep behaviors. Such injuries may result in fatal outcomes. Other complex sleep behaviors (e.g., preparing and eating food, making phone calls, or having sex) have also been reported. Patients usually do not remember these events. Post-marketing reports have shown that complex sleep behaviors may occur with eszopiclone alone at recommended dosages, with or without the concomitant use of alcohol or other CNS depressants [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Discontinue eszopiclone immediately if a patient experiences a complex sleep behavior.

5.2 CNS Depressant Effects and Next-Day Impairment

Eszopiclone is a CNS depressant and can impair daytime function in some patients at the higher doses (2 mg or 3 mg), even when used as prescribed. Prescribers should monitor for excess depressant effects, but impairment can occur in the absence of symptoms (or even with subjective improvement), and impairment may not be reliably detected by ordinary clinical exam (i.e., less than formal psychomotor testing). While pharmacodynamic tolerance or adaptation to some adverse depressant effects of eszopiclone may develop, patients using 3 mg eszopiclone should be cautioned against driving or engaging in other hazardous activities or activities requiring complete mental alertness the day after use.

Additive effects occur with concomitant use of other CNS depressants (e.g., benzodiazepines, opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol), including daytime use. Downward dose adjustment of eszopiclone and concomitant CNS depressants should be considered [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

The use of eszopiclone with other sedative-hypnotics at bedtime or the middle of the night is not recommended.

The risk of next-day psychomotor impairment is increased if eszopiclone is taken with less than a full night of sleep remaining (7- to 8 hours); if higher than the recommended dose is taken; if coadministered with other CNS depressants; or coadministered with other drugs that increase the blood levels of eszopiclone [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Studies (14.3)].

Because eszopiclone can cause drowsiness and a decreased level of consciousness, patients, particularly the elderly, are at higher risk of falls.

5.3 Need to Evaluate for Comorbid Diagnoses

Because sleep disturbances may be the presenting manifestation of a physical and/or psychiatric disorder, symptomatic treatment of insomnia should be initiated only after a careful evaluation of the patient. The failure of insomnia to remit after 7 to 10 days of treatment may indicate the presence of a primary psychiatric and/or medical illness that should be evaluated. Worsening of insomnia or the emergence of new thinking or behavior abnormalities may be the consequence of an unrecognized psychiatric or physical disorder. Such findings have emerged during the course of treatment with sedative/hypnotic drugs, including eszopiclone. Because some of the important adverse effects of eszopiclone appear to be dose related, it is important to use the lowest possible effective dose, especially in the elderly [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].

5.4 Severe Anaphylactic and Anaphylactoid Reactions

Rare cases of angioedema involving the tongue, glottis or larynx have been reported in patients after taking the first or subsequent doses of sedative-hypnotics, including eszopiclone. Some patients have had additional symptoms such as dyspnea, throat closing, or nausea and vomiting that suggest anaphylaxis. Some patients have required medical therapy in the emergency department. If angioedema involves the tongue, glottis or larynx, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who develop angioedema after treatment with eszopiclone should not be rechallenged with the drug.

5.5 Abnormal Thinking and Behavioral Changes

A variety of abnormal thinking and behavior changes have been reported to occur in association with the use of sedative/hypnotics. Some of these changes may be characterized by decreased inhibition (e.g., aggressiveness and extroversion that seem out of character), similar to effects produced by alcohol and other CNS depressants. Other reported behavioral changes have included bizarre behavior, agitation, hallucinations, and depersonalization. Amnesia and other neuropsychiatric symptoms may occur unpredictably.

It can rarely be determined with certainty whether a particular instance of the abnormal behaviors listed above is drug induced, spontaneous in origin, or a result of an underlying psychiatric or physical disorder. Nonetheless, the emergence of any new behavioral sign or symptom of concern requires careful and immediate evaluation.

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