Ezetimibe and Simvastatin (Page 5 of 11)

7.9 Colchicine

Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with simvastatin co-administered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing ezetimibe and simvastatin with colchicine.

7.10 Daptomycin

Cases of rhabdomyolysis have been reported with ezetimibe and simvastatin administered with daptomycin. Both ezetimibe and simvastatin and daptomycin can cause myopathy and rhabdomyolysis when given alone and the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis may be increased by co-administration. Temporarily suspend ezetimibe and simvastatin in patients taking daptomycin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category X.

[See Contraindications (4)].

E zetimibe and simvastatin

Ezetimibe and simvastatin is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. Lipid-lowering drugs offer no benefit during pregnancy, because cholesterol and cholesterol derivatives are needed for normal fetal development. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process, and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on long-term outcomes of primary hypercholesterolemia therapy. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ezetimibe and simvastatin use during pregnancy; however, there are rare reports of congenital anomalies in infants exposed to statins in utero. Animal reproduction studies of simvastatin in rats and rabbits showed no evidence of teratogenicity. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides increase during normal pregnancy, and cholesterol or cholesterol derivatives are essential for fetal development. Because statins, such as simvastatin, decrease cholesterol synthesis and possibly the synthesis of other biologically active substances derived from cholesterol, ezetimibe and simvastatin may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If ezetimibe and simvastatin is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

Women of childbearing potential, who require ezetimibe and simvastatin treatment for a lipid disorder, should be advised to use effective contraception. For women trying to conceive, discontinuation of ezetimibe and simvastatin should be considered. If pregnancy occurs, ezetimibe and simvastatin should be immediately discontinued.

Ezetimibe

In oral (gavage) embryo-fetal development studies of ezetimibe conducted in rats and rabbits during organogenesis, there was no evidence of embryolethal effects at the doses tested (250, 500, 1,000 mg/kg/day). In rats, increased incidences of common fetal skeletal findings (extra pair of thoracic ribs, unossified cervical vertebral centra, shortened ribs) were observed at 1,000 mg/kg/day (~10 times the human exposure at 10 mg daily based on AUC0-24hr for total ezetimibe). In rabbits treated with ezetimibe, an increased incidence of extra thoracic ribs was observed at 1,000 mg/kg/day (150 times the human exposure at 10 mg daily based on

AUC0-24hr for total ezetimibe). Ezetimibe crossed the placenta when pregnant rats and rabbits were given multiple oral doses.

Multiple-dose studies of ezetimibe co-administered with statins in rats and rabbits during organogenesis result in higher ezetimibe and statin exposures. Reproductive findings occur at lower doses in co-administration therapy compared to monotherapy.

Simvastatin

Simvastatin was not teratogenic in rats or rabbits at doses (25 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, respectively) that resulted in 3 times the human exposure based on mg/m2 surface area. However, in studies with another structurally-related statin, skeletal malformations were observed in rats and mice.

There are rare reports of congenital anomalies following intrauterine exposure to statins. In a review1 of approximately 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to simvastatin or another structurally-related statin, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed what would be expected in the general population. The number of cases is adequate only to exclude a 3- to 4-fold increase in congenital anomalies over the background incidence. In 89% of the prospectively followed pregnancies, drug treatment was initiated prior to pregnancy and was discontinued at some point in the first trimester when pregnancy was identified.

1 Manson, J.M., Freyssinges, C., Ducrocq, M.B., Stephenson, W.P., Postmarketing Surveillance of Lovastatin and Simvastatin Exposure During Pregnancy, Reproductive Toxicology , 10(6):439-446, 1996.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether simvastatin is excreted in human milk. Because a small amount of another drug in this class is excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women taking simvastatin should not nurse their infants. A decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see Contraindications (4)].

In rat studies, exposure to ezetimibe in nursing pups was up to half of that observed in maternal plasma. It is not known whether ezetimibe or simvastatin are excreted into human breast milk. Because a small amount of another drug in the same class as simvastatin is excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women who are nursing should not take ezetimibe and simvastatin [see Contraindications (4)].

8.4 Pediatric Use

The effects of ezetimibe co-administered with simvastatin (n=126) compared to simvastatin monotherapy (n=122) have been evaluated in adolescent boys and girls with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH). In a multicenter, double-blind, controlled study followed by an open-label phase, 142 boys and 106 postmenarchal girls, 10 to 17 years of age (mean age 14.2 years, 43% females, 82% Caucasians, 4% Asian, 2% Blacks, 13% multiracial) with HeFH were randomized to receive either ezetimibe co-administered with simvastatin or simvastatin monotherapy. Inclusion in the study required 1) a baseline LDL-C level between 160 and 400 mg/dL and 2) a medical history and clinical presentation consistent with HeFH. The mean baseline LDL-C value was 225 mg/dL (range: 161 mg/dL to 351 mg/dL) in the ezetimibe co-administered with simvastatin group compared to 219 mg/dL (range: 149 mg/dL to 336 mg/dL) in the simvastatin monotherapy group. The patients received co-administered ezetimibe and simvastatin (10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg) or simvastatin monotherapy (10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg) for 6 weeks, co-administered ezetimibe and 40 mg simvastatin or 40 mg simvastatin monotherapy for the next 27 weeks, and open-label co-administered ezetimibe and simvastatin (10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg) for 20 weeks thereafter.

The results of the study at Week 6 are summarized in Table 3. Results at Week 33 were consistent with those at Week 6.

Table 3: Mean Percent Difference at Week 6 Between the Pooled Ezetimibe Co-administered with Simvastatin Group and the Pooled Simvastatin Monotherapy Group in Adolescent Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Total-C

LDL-C

Apo B

Non-HDL-C

TG*

HDL-C

Mean percent difference between treatment groups

-12%

-15%

-12%

-14%

-2%

+0.1%

95% Confidence Interval

(-15%, -9%)

(-18%, -12%)

(-15%, -9%)

(-17%, -11%)

(-9, +4)

(-3, +3)

* For triglycerides, median % change from baseline.

From the start of the trial to the end of Week 33, discontinuations due to an adverse reaction occurred in 7 (6%) patients in the ezetimibe co-administered with simvastatin group and in 2 (2%) patients in the simvastatin monotherapy group.

During the trial, hepatic transaminase elevations (two consecutive measurements for ALT and/or AST ≥3 X ULN) occurred in four (3%) individuals in the ezetimibe co-administered with simvastatin group and in two (2%) individuals in the simvastatin monotherapy group. Elevations of CPK (≥10 X ULN) occurred in two (2%) individuals in the ezetimibe co-administered with simvastatin group and in zero individuals in the simvastatin monotherapy group.

In this limited controlled study, there was no significant effect on growth or sexual maturation in the adolescent boys or girls, or on menstrual cycle length in girls.

Co-administration of ezetimibe with simvastatin at doses greater than 40 mg/day has not been studied in adolescents. Also, ezetimibe and simvastatin has not been studied in patients younger than 10 years of age or in pre-menarchal girls.

Ezetimibe

Based on total ezetimibe (ezetimibe + ezetimibe-glucuronide) there are no pharmacokinetic differences between adolescents and adults. Pharmacokinetic data in the pediatric population <10 years of age are not available.

Simvastatin

The pharmacokinetics of simvastatin has not been studied in the pediatric population.

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