Famotidine (Page 4 of 6)

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Famotidine is incompletely absorbed. The bioavailability of oral doses is 40 to 45%. Bioavailability may be slightly increased by food, or slightly decreased by antacids; however, these effects are of no clinical consequence.

Peak famotidine plasma levels occur in 1 to 3 hours. Plasma levels after multiple dosages are similar to those after single doses.

Distribution

Fifteen to 20% of famotidine in plasma is protein bound.

Elimination

Metabolism

Famotidine undergoes minimal first-pass metabolism. Twenty-five to 30% of an oral dose was recovered in the urine as unchanged compound. The only metabolite identified in humans is the S-oxide.

Excretion

Famotidine has an elimination half-life of 2.5 to 3.5 hours. Famotidine is eliminated by renal (65 to 70%) and metabolic (30 to 35%) routes. Renal clearance is 250 to 450 mL/minute, indicating some tubular excretion.

Specific Populations

Pediatric Patients

Bioavailability studies of 8 pediatric patients (11 to 15 years of age) showed a mean oral bioavailability of 0.5 compared to adult values of 0.42 to 0.49. Oral doses of 0.5 mg per kg achieved AUCs of 580 ± 60 ng•hr/mL in pediatric patients 11 to 15 years of age, compared to 482 ± 181 ng•hr/mL in adults treated with 40 mg orally.

Patients with Renal Impairment

In adult patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/minute), the systemic exposure (AUC) of famotidine increased at least 5-fold. In patients with moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance between 30 to 60 mL/minute), the AUC of famotidine increased at least 2-fold [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2), Use in Specific Population ( 8.6)] .

Drug Interaction Studies

Human Organic Anion Transporter (OAT) 1 and 3: In vitro studies indicate that famotidine is a substrate for OAT1 and OAT3. Following coadministration of probenecid (1500 mg), an inhibitor of OAT1 and OAT3, with a single oral 20 mg dose of famotidine in 8 healthy subjects, the serum AUC 0-10h of famotidine increased from 424 to 768 ng•hr/mL and the maximum serum concentration (C max ) increased from 73 to 113 ng/mL. Renal clearance, urinary excretion rate and amount of famotidine excreted unchanged in urine were decreased. The clinical relevance of this interaction is unknown.

Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion Protein 1 (MATE-1): An in vitro study showed that famotidine is an inhibitor of MATE-1. However, no clinically significant interaction with metformin, a substrate for MATE-1, was observed.

CYP1A2: Famotidine is a weak CYP1A2 inhibitor.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenic potential of famotidine was assessed in a 106-week oral carcinogenicity study in rats and a 92-week oral carcinogenicity study in mice. In the 106-week study in rats and the 92-week study in mice at oral doses of up to 2000 mg/kg/day (approximately 243 and 122 times, respectively, based on body surface area, the recommended human dose of 80 mg per day for the treatment of erosive esophagitis), there was no evidence of carcinogenic potential for famotidine.

Famotidine was negative in the microbial mutagen test (Ames test) using Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli with or without rat liver enzyme activation at concentrations up to 10,000 mcg/plate. In in vivo studies in mice, with a micronucleus test and a chromosomal aberration test, no evidence of a mutagenic effect was observed.

In studies with rats given oral doses of up to 2000 mg/kg/day (approximately 243 times, based on body surface area, the recommended human dose of 80 mg per day) fertility and reproductive performance were not affected.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Active Duodenal Ulcer

In a U.S. multicenter, double-blind trial in adult outpatients with endoscopically confirmed duodenal ulcer (DU), orally administered famotidine was compared to placebo. As shown in Table 4, 70% of patients treated with famotidine 40 mg at bedtime were healed by Week 4. Most patients’ DU healed within 4 weeks.

Patients not healed by Week 4 were continued in the trial. By Week 8, 83% of patients treated with famotidine tablets had healed DU, compared to 45% of patients treated with placebo. The incidence of DU healing with famotidine tablets was greater than with placebo at each time point based on proportion of endoscopically confirmed healed DUs. Trials have not assessed the safety of famotidine tablets in uncomplicated active DU for periods of more than 8 weeks.

Table 4: Patients with Endoscopically Confirmed Healed Duodenal Ulcers

Famotidine 40 mg at bedtime (N=89)

Famotidine 20 mg twice daily (N=84)

Placebo at bedtime (N=97)

Week 2

32% a

38% a

17%

Week 4

70% a

67% a

31%

a p<0.001 vs. placebo

In this study, time to relief of daytime and nocturnal pain was shorter for patients receiving famotidine than for patients receiving placebo; patients receiving famotidine also took less antacid than patients receiving placebo.

14.2 Active Gastric Ulcer

In both a U.S. and an international multicenter, double-blind trials in patients with endoscopically confirmed active gastric ulcer (GU), orally administered famotidine 40 mg at bedtime was compared to placebo. Antacids were permitted during the trials, but consumption was not significantly different between the famotidine and placebo groups.

As shown in Table 5, the incidence of GU healing confirmed by endoscopy (dropouts counted as unhealed) with famotidine was greater than placebo at Weeks 6 and 8 in the U.S. trial, and at Weeks 4, 6 and 8 in the international trial. In these trials, most famotidine tablets-treated patients healed within 6 weeks. Trials have not assessed the safety of famotidine tablets in uncomplicated active GU for periods of more than 8 weeks.

Table 5: Patients with Endoscopically Confirmed Healed Gastric Ulcers

U.S. Study (N=149)

International Study (N=294)

Famotidine 40 mg at bedtime (N=74)

Placebo at bedtime (N=75)

Famotidine 40 mg at bedtime (N=149)

Placebo at bedtime (N=145)

Week 4

45%

39%

47% a

31%

Week 6

66% a

44%

65% a

46%

Week 8

78% b

64%

80% a

54%

a p≤0.01 vs. placebo

b p≤0.05 vs. placebo

Time to complete relief of daytime and nighttime pain was statistically significantly shorter for patients receiving famotidine than for patients receiving placebo; however, neither trial demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients whose pain was relieved by the end of the trial (Week 8).

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