FARXIGA (Page 3 of 13)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

Additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of FARXIGA in patients with diabetes mellitus. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Ketoacidosis
Acute Kidney Injury
Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis
Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier’s Gangrene)
Rash

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Positive Urine Glucose Test

Monitoring glycemic control with urine glucose tests is not recommended in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors as SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion and will lead to positive urine glucose tests. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.

7.2 Interference with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) Assay

Monitoring glycemic control with 1,5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Based on animal data showing adverse renal effects, FARXIGA is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

Limited data with FARXIGA in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes and untreated heart failure in pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).

In animal studies, adverse renal pelvic and tubule dilatations, that were not fully reversible, were observed in rats when dapagliflozin was administered during a period of renal development corresponding to the late second and third trimesters of human pregnancy, at all doses tested; the lowest of which provided an exposure 15-times the 10 mg clinical dose (see Data).

The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6 to 10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a HbA1c greater than 7% and has been reported to be as high as 20 to 25% in women with HbA1c greater than 10%. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-associated maternal and/or embryofetal risk

Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity.

Data

Animal Data

Dapagliflozin dosed directly to juvenile rats from postnatal day (PND) 21 until PND 90 at doses of 1, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day, increased kidney weights and increased the incidence of renal pelvic and tubular dilatations at all dose levels. Exposure at the lowest dose tested was 15-times the 10 mg clinical dose (based on AUC). The renal pelvic and tubular dilatations observed in juvenile animals did not fully reverse within a 1-month recovery period.

In a prenatal and postnatal development study, dapagliflozin was administered to maternal rats from gestation day 6 through lactation day 21 at doses of 1, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day, and pups were indirectly exposed in utero and throughout lactation. Increased incidence or severity of renal pelvic dilatation was observed in 21-day-old pups offspring of treated dams at 75 mg/kg/day (maternal and pup dapagliflozin exposures were 1415-times and 137-times, respectively, the human values at the 10 mg clinical dose, based on AUC). Dose-related reductions in pup body weights were observed at greater or equal to 29-times the 10 mg clinical dose (based on AUC). No adverse effects on developmental endpoints were noted at 1 mg/kg/day (19-times the 10 mg clinical dose, based on AUC). These outcomes occurred with drug exposure during periods of renal development in rats that corresponds to the late second and third trimester of human development.

In embryofetal development studies in rats and rabbits, dapagliflozin was administered throughout organogenesis, corresponding to the first trimester of human pregnancy. In rats, dapagliflozin was neither embryolethal nor teratogenic at doses up to 75 mg/kg/day (1441-times the 10 mg clinical dose, based on AUC). Dose related effects on the rat fetus (structural abnormalities and reduced body weight) occurred only at higher dosages, equal to or greater than 150 mg/kg (more than 2344-times the 10 mg clinical dose, based on AUC), which were associated with maternal toxicity. No developmental toxicities were observed in rabbits at doses up to 180 mg/kg/day (1191-times the 10 mg clinical dose, based on AUC).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There is no information regarding the presence of dapagliflozin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Dapagliflozin is present in the milk of lactating rats (see Data). However, due to species-specific differences in lactation physiology, the clinical relevance of these data are not clear. Since human kidney maturation occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of life when lactational exposure may occur, there may be risk to the developing human kidney.

Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants, advise women that use of FARXIGA is not recommended while breastfeeding.

Data

Dapagliflozin was present in rat milk at a milk/plasma ratio of 0.49, indicating that dapagliflozin and its metabolites are transferred into milk at a concentration that is approximately 50% of that in maternal plasma. Juvenile rats directly exposed to dapagliflozin showed risk to the developing kidney (renal pelvic and tubular dilatations) during maturation.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of FARXIGA in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

No FARXIGA dosage change is recommended based on age.

A total of 1424 (24%) of the 5936 FARXIGA-treated patients were 65 years and older and 207 (3.5%) patients were 75 years and older in a pool of 21 double-blind, controlled, clinical studies assessing the efficacy of FARXIGA in improving glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. After controlling for level of renal function (eGFR), efficacy was similar for patients under age 65 years and those 65 years and older. In patients ≥65 years of age, a higher proportion of patients treated with FARXIGA for glycemic control had adverse reactions of hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

In both the DAPA-HF and DAPA-CKD studies, safety and efficacy were similar for patients age 65 years and younger and those older than 65. In the DAPA-HF study, 2714 (57%) out of 4744 patients with HFrEF were older than 65 years. In the DAPA-CKD study, 1818 (42%) out of 4304 patients with CKD were older than 65 years.

8.6 Renal Impairment

FARXIGA was evaluated in 4304 patients with chronic kidney disease (eGFR 25 to 75 mL/min/1.73 m2) in the DAPA-CKD study. FARXIGA was also evaluated in 1926 patients with an eGFR of 30 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the DAPA-HF study. The safety profile of FARXIGA across eGFR subgroups in these studies was consistent with the known safety profile [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Clinical Studies (14.3 and 14.4)].

FARXIGA was evaluated in two glycemic control studies that included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with moderate renal impairment (an eGFR of 45 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see Clinical Studies (14.1)] , and an eGFR of 30 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 , respectively). Patients with diabetes and renal impairment using FARXIGA may be more likely to experience hypotension and may be at higher risk for acute kidney injury secondary to volume depletion. In the study of patients with an eGFR 30 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 , 13 patients receiving FARXIGA experienced bone fractures compared to none receiving placebo. Use of FARXIGA for glycemic control in patients without established CV disease or CV risk factors is not recommended when eGFR is less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

Efficacy and safety studies with FARXIGA did not enroll patients with an eGFR less than 25 mL/min/1.73 m2. FARXIGA is contraindicated in patients on dialysis.

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