Following multiple 80 mg doses of febuxostat tablets in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment, an average of 20% to 30% increase was observed for both Cmax and AUC24 (total and unbound) in hepatic impairment groups compared to patients with normal hepatic function. In addition, the percent decrease in serum uric acid concentration was comparable between different hepatic groups (62% in healthy group, 49% in mild hepatic impairment group, and 48% in moderate hepatic impairment group). No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. No studies have been conducted in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C); caution should be exercised in those patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7)].
Following multiple oral doses of febuxostat tablets, the Cmax and AUC24 of febuxostat were 30% and 14% higher in females than in males, respectively. However, weight-corrected Cmax and AUC were similar between the genders. In addition, the percent decrease in serum uric acid concentrations was similar between genders. No dose adjustment is necessary based on gender.
No specific pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effects of race.
Febuxostat is an XO inhibitor. A drug-drug interaction study evaluating the effect of febuxostat tablets upon the pharmacokinetics of theophylline (an XO substrate) in healthy patients showed that coadministration of febuxostat with theophylline resulted in an approximately 400-fold increase in the amount of 1-methylxanthine, one of the major metabolites of theophylline, excreted in the urine. Since the long-term safety of exposure to 1-methylxanthine in humans is unknown, use with caution when coadministering febuxostat with theophylline.
Drug interaction studies of febuxostat tablets with other drugs that are metabolized by XO (e.g., mercaptopurine and azathioprine) have not been conducted. Inhibition of XO by febuxostat tablets may cause increased plasma concentrations of these drugs leading to toxicity. Febuxostat tablets are contraindicated in patients being treated with azathioprine or mercaptopurine [see Contraindications (4) and Drug Interactions (7)].
Azathioprine and mercaptopurine undergo metabolism via three major metabolic pathways, one of which is mediated by XO. Although febuxostat tablet drug interaction studies with azathioprine and mercaptopurine have not been conducted, concomitant administration of allopurinol [a xanthine oxidase inhibitor] with azathioprine or mercaptopurine has been reported to substantially increase plasma concentrations of these drugs. Because febuxostat tablets are a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, they could inhibit the XO-mediated metabolism of azathioprine and mercaptopurine leading to increased plasma concentrations of azathioprine or mercaptopurine that could result in severe toxicity.
In vitro studies have shown that febuxostat does not inhibit P450 enzymes CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 3A4 and it also does not induce CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, or 3A4 at clinically relevant concentrations. As such, pharmacokinetic interactions between febuxostat tablets and drugs metabolized by these CYP enzymes are unlikely.
Febuxostat is metabolized by conjugation and oxidation via multiple metabolizing enzymes. The relative contribution of each enzyme isoform is not clear. Drug interactions between febuxostat tablets and a drug that inhibits or induces one particular enzyme isoform is in general not expected.
No dose adjustment is necessary for theophylline when coadministered with febuxostat tablets. Administration of febuxostat tablets (80 mg once daily) with theophylline resulted in an increase of 6% in Cmax and 6.5% in AUC of theophylline. These changes were not considered statistically significant. However, the study also showed an approximately 400-fold increase in the amount of 1-methylxanthine (one of the major theophylline metabolites) excreted in urine as a result of XO inhibition by febuxostat tablets. The safety of long-term exposure to 1-methylxanthine has not been evaluated. This should be taken into consideration when deciding to coadminister febuxostat tablets and theophylline.
No dose adjustment is necessary for either febuxostat tablets or colchicine when the two drugs are coadministered. Administration of febuxostat tablets (40 mg once daily) with colchicine (0.6 mg twice daily) resulted in an increase of 12% in Cmax and 7% in AUC24 of febuxostat. In addition, administration of colchicine (0.6 mg twice daily) with febuxostat tablets (120 mg daily) resulted in a less than 11% change in Cmax or AUC of colchicine for both AM and PM doses. These changes were not considered clinically significant.
No dose adjustment is necessary for febuxostat tablets or naproxen when the two drugs are coadministered. Administration of febuxostat tablets (80 mg once daily) with naproxen (500 mg twice daily) resulted in a 28% increase in Cmax and a 40% increase in AUC of febuxostat. The increases were not considered clinically significant. In addition, there were no significant changes in the Cmax or AUC of naproxen (less than 2%).
No dose adjustment is necessary for either febuxostat tablets or indomethacin when these two drugs are coadministered. Administration of febuxostat tablets (80 mg once daily) with indomethacin (50 mg twice daily) did not result in any significant changes in Cmax or AUC of febuxostat or indomethacin (less than 7%).
No dose adjustment is necessary for febuxostat tablets when coadministered with hydrochlorothiazide. Administration of febuxostat tablets (80 mg) with hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg) did not result in any clinically significant changes in Cmax or AUC of febuxostat (less than 4%), and serum uric acid concentrations were not substantially affected.
No dose adjustment is necessary for warfarin when coadministered with febuxostat tablets. Administration of febuxostat tablets (80 mg once daily) with warfarin had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin in healthy patients. INR and Factor VII activity were also not affected by the coadministration of febuxostat tablets.
Coadministration of drugs that are CYP2D6 substrates (such as desipramine) with febuxostat tablets are not expected to require dose adjustment. Febuxostat was shown to be a weak inhibitor of CYP2D6 in vitro and in vivo. Administration of febuxostat tablets (120 mg once daily) with desipramine (25 mg) resulted in an increase in Cmax (16%) and AUC (22%) of desipramine, which was associated with a 17% decrease in the 2-hydroxydesipramine to desipramine metabolic ratio (based on AUC).
Two year carcinogenicity studies were conducted in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Increased transitional cell papilloma and carcinoma of the urinary bladder was observed at 24 mg/kg (25 times the MRHD on an AUC basis and 18.75 mg/kg (12.5 times the MRHD on an AUC basis) in male rats and female mice, respectively. The urinary bladder neoplasms were secondary to calculus formation in the kidney and urinary bladder.
Febuxostat showed a positive clastogenic response in a chromosomal aberration assay in a Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line with and without metabolic activation in vitro. Febuxostat was negative in the following genotoxicity assays: the in vitro Ames assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in human peripheral lymphocytes, the L5178Y mouse lymphoma cell line assay, the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, and the rat unscheduled DNA synthesis assay.
Fertility and reproductive performance were unaffected in male or female rats that received febuxostat at oral doses up to 48 mg/kg/day (approximately 31 and 40 times the MRHD on an AUC basis in males and females respectively).
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