FELDENE- piroxicam capsule
Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
- NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk (see WARNINGS).
- Piroxicam capsules are contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).
- NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).
Piroxicam capsules contain piroxicam which is a member of the oxicam group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Each dark green capsule contains 20 mg piroxicam for oral administration. The chemical name for piroxicam is 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N -2-pyridinyl-2H -1,2-benzothiazine-3- carboxamide 1,1-dioxide. Members of the oxicam family are not carboxylic acids, but they are acidic by virtue of the enolic 4-hydroxy substituent. Piroxicam occurs as a white crystalline solid, sparingly soluble in water, dilute acid and most organic solvents. It is slightly soluble in alcohol and in aqueous alkaline solutions. It exhibits a weakly acidic 4-hydroxy proton (pKa 5.1) and a weakly basic pyridyl nitrogen (pKa 1.8). It has the following structural formula:
C15 H13 N3 O4 S M.W. 331.35
Each capsule, for oral administration, 20 mg piroxicam. In addition, each capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Green No. 3, gelatin, lactose, magnesium stearate, povidone, sodium lauryl sulfate, and titanium dioxide.
Piroxicam capsules are a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities in animal models. The mechanism of action of piroxicam, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition.
Piroxicam is well absorbed following oral administration. Drug plasma concentrations are proportional for 10 and 20 mg doses and generally peak within three to five hours after medication. The prolonged half-life (50 hours) results in the maintenance of relatively stable plasma concentrations throughout the day on once daily doses and to significant accumulation upon multiple dosing. A single 20 mg dose generally produces peak piroxicam plasma levels of 1.5 to 2 mcg/mL, while maximum drug plasma concentrations, after repeated daily ingestion of 20 mg piroxicam capsules, usually stabilize at 3 to 8 mcg/mL. Most patients approximate steady- state plasma levels within 7 to 12 days. Higher levels, which approximate steady state at two to three weeks, have been observed in patients in whom longer plasma half-lives of piroxicam occurred.
With food there is a slight delay in the rate but not the extent of absorption following oral administration. The concomitant administration of antacids (aluminum hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide with magnesium hydroxide) have been shown to have no effect on the plasma levels of orally administered piroxicam.
The apparent volume of distribution of piroxicam is approximately 0.14 L/kg. Ninety-nine percent of plasma piroxicam is bound to plasma proteins. Piroxicam is excreted into human milk. The presence in breast milk has been determined during initial and long-term conditions (52 days). Piroxicam appeared in breast milk at about 1% to 3% of the maternal concentration. No accumulation of piroxicam occurred in milk relative to that in plasma during treatment.
Metabolism of piroxicam occurs by hydroxylation at the 5 position of the pyridyl side chain and conjugation of this product; by cyclodehydration; and by a sequence of reactions involving hydrolysis of the amide linkage, decarboxylation, ring contraction and N -demethylation. The biotransformation products of piroxicam metabolism are reported to not have any anti-inflammatory activity.
Piroxicam and its biotransformation products are excreted in urine and feces, with about twice as much appearing in the urine as in the feces. Approximately 5% of a piroxicam dose is excreted unchanged. The plasma half-life (T½ ) for piroxicam is approximately 50 hours.
Piroxicam capsules have not been investigated in pediatric patients.
Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been identified.
The effects of hepatic disease on piroxicam pharmacokinetics have not been established. However, a substantial portion of piroxicam elimination occurs by hepatic metabolism. Consequently, patients with hepatic disease may require reduced doses of piroxicam as compared to patients with normal hepatic function.
Piroxicam pharmacokinetics have been investigated in patients with renal insufficiency. Studies indicate patients with mild to moderate renal impairment may not require dosing adjustments. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of piroxicam in patients with severe renal insufficiency or those receiving hemodialysis are not known.
In controlled clinical trials, the effectiveness of piroxicam has been established for both acute exacerbations and long-term management of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
The therapeutic effects of piroxicam are evident early in the treatment of both diseases with a progressive increase in response over several (8 to 12) weeks. Efficacy is seen in terms of pain relief and, when present, subsidence of inflammation.
Doses of 20 mg/day piroxicam display a therapeutic effect comparable to therapeutic doses of aspirin, with a lower incidence of minor gastrointestinal effects and tinnitus.
Piroxicam has been administered concomitantly with fixed doses of gold and corticosteroids. The existence of a “steroid-sparing” effect has not been adequately studied to date.
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of piroxicam capsules and other treatment options before deciding to use piroxicam capsules. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
Piroxicam capsules are indicated:
- For relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis.
- For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
Piroxicam capsules are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to piroxicam.
Piroxicam capsules should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS , Anaphylactoid Reactions and PRECAUTIONS , Preexisting Asthma).
Piroxicam capsules are contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).
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