The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of fenofibrate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, pancreatitis, acute renal failure, muscle spasm, hepatitis, cirrhosis, anemia, arthralgia, decreases in hemoglobin, decreases in hematocrit, white blood cell decreases, asthenia, severely depressed HDL-cholesterol levels, and interstitial lung disease. Photosensitivity reactions have occurred days to months after initiation; in some of these cases, patients reported a prior photosensitivity reaction to ketoprofen.
Potentiation of coumarin-type anticoagulant effect has been observed with prolongation of the PT/INR.
Caution should be exercised when fenofibrate is given in conjunction with coumarin anticoagulants. Fenofibrate may potentiate the anticoagulant effect of these agents resulting in prolongation of the PT/INR. To prevent bleeding complications, frequent monitoring of PT/INR and dose adjustment of the oral anticoagulant as recommended until the PT/INR has stabilized [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Immunosuppressant agents such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus can impair renal function and because renal excretion is the primary elimination route of fibrate drugs including fenofibrate capsules, there is a risk that an interaction will lead to deterioration of renal function. When immunosuppressants and other potentially nephrotoxic agents are co-administered with fenofibrate capsules, the lowest effective dose of fenofibrate capsules should be employed and renal function should be monitored.
Since bile-acid binding resins may bind other drugs given concurrently, patients should take fenofibrate at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours after a bile acid binding resin to avoid impeding its absorption.
Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with fenofibrates co-administered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing fenofibrate with colchicine.
Limited available data with fenofibrate use in pregnant women are insufficient to determine a drug associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of embryo-fetal toxicity was observed with oral administration of fenofibrate in rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses less than or equivalent to the maximum recommended clinical dose of 150 mg daily, based on body surface area (mg/m2). Adverse reproductive outcomes occurred at higher doses in the presence of maternal toxicity (see Data). Fenofibrate capsules should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 14, 127, and 361 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-15 during the period of organogenesis, no adverse developmental findings were observed at 14 mg/kg/day (less than the clinical exposure at the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 300 mg fenofibrate daily, equivalent to 150 mg fenofibrate daily, based on body surface area comparisons). Increased fetal skeletal malformations were observed at maternally toxic doses (361 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 12 times the clinical exposure at the MRHD) that significantly suppressed maternal body weight gain.
In pregnant rabbits given oral gavage doses of 15, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-18 during the period of organogenesis and allowed to deliver, no adverse developmental findings were observed at 15 mg/kg/day (a dose that approximates the clinical exposure at the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons). Aborted litters were observed at maternally toxic doses (≥ 150 mg/kg/day, corresponding to ≥ 10 times the clinical exposure at the MRHD) that suppressed maternal body weight gain.
In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 15 through lactation day 21 (weaning), no adverse developmental effects were observed at 15 mg/kg/day (less than the clinical exposure at the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons), despite maternal toxicity (decreased weight gain). Post-implantation loss was observed at ≥ 75 mg/kg/day (≥ 2 times the clinical exposure at the MRHD) in the presence of maternal toxicity (decreased weight gain). Decreased pup survival was noted at 300 mg/kg/day (10 times the clinical exposure at the MRHD), which was associated with decreased maternal body weight gain/maternal neglect.
There is no available information on the presence of fenofibrate in human milk, effects of the drug on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Fenofibrate is present in the milk of rats, and is therefore likely to be present in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants, such as disruption of infant lipid metabolism, women should not breastfeed during treatment with fenofibrate capsules and for 5 days after the final dose [see Contraindications (4)].
In fertility studies rats were given oral dietary doses of fenofibrate, males received 61 days prior to mating and females 15 days prior to mating through weaning which resulted in no adverse effect on fertility at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 10 times the MRHD, based on mg/m2 surface area comparisons) [see Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility (13.1)].
Safety and effectiveness have not been established in pediatric patients.
Fenofibrate is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Since elderly patients have a higher incidence of renal impairment, the dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Fenofibrate exposure is not influenced by age. Elderly patients with normal renal function should require no dose modifications. Consider monitoring renal function in elderly patients taking fenofibrate.
The use of fenofibrate should be avoided in patients who have severe renal impairment [see Contraindications (4)]. Dose reduction is required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Monitoring renal function in patients with renal impairment is recommended.
There is no specific treatment for overdose with fenofibrate. General supportive care of the patient is indicated, including monitoring of vital signs and observation of clinical status, should an overdose occur. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed drug should be achieved by emesis or gastric lavage. The usual precautions should be observed to maintain the airway. Because fenofibrate is highly bound to plasma proteins, hemodialysis should not be considered.
Fenofibrate Capsules USP are a lipid regulating agent available as hard gelatin capsules for oral administration. Each hard gelatin capsule contains 50 or 150 mg of fenofibrate USP. The chemical name for fenofibrate is 2-[4-(4-chlorobenzoyl) phenoxy]-2-methyl-propanoic acid, 1-methylethyl ester with the following structural formula:
The empirical formula is C20 H21 O4 C1 and the molecular weight is 360.83; fenofibrate is insoluble in water. The melting point is 79-82o C. Fenofibrate is a white solid which is stable under ordinary conditions.
Fenofibrate Capsules USP meet USP Dissolution Test 2.
Inactive Ingredients: Each hard gelatin capsule contains Gelucire 44/14 (lauroyl macrogol glyceride type 1500), polyethylene glycol 20,000, polyethylene glycol 8000, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium starch glycolate, gelatin, titanium dioxide, shellac, propylene glycol, may also contain black iron oxide, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Red #40, D&C Yellow #10.
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