FENOFIBRATE- fenofibrate capsule
Fenofibrate capsules, USP (micronized) are a lipid regulating agent available as capsules for oral administration. The chemical name for fenofibrate is 2-[4-(4- chlorobenzoyl) phenoxy]-2-methyl-propanoic acid, 1-methylethyl ester with the following structural formula:
The empirical formula is C20H21O4Cl and the molecular weight is 360.83; fenofibrate is insoluble in water. The melting point is 79° to 82°C. Fenofibrate is a white solid which is stable under ordinary conditions.
Each 67 mg fenofibrate capsule, USP contains the following inactive ingredients: sodium lauryl sulfate, croscarmellose sodium, pregelatinized starch, microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium stearyl fumarate, titanium dioxide and gelatin. The capsule shell imprinting ink contains the following inactive ingredients: shellac, black iron oxide and potassium hydroxide.
Each 134 mg fenofibrate capsule, USP contains the following inactive ingredients: sodium lauryl sulfate, croscarmellose sodium, pregelatinized starch, microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium stearyl fumarate, titanium dioxide, FD&C Yellow 6, D&C Yellow 10 and gelatin. The capsule shell imprinting ink contains the following inactive ingredients: shellac, black iron oxide and potassium hydroxide.
Each 200 mg fenofibrate capsule, USP contains the following inactive ingredients: sodium lauryl sulfate, croscarmellose sodium, pregelatinized starch, microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, sodium stearyl fumarate, titanium dioxide, FD&C Yellow 6, D&C Yellow 10 and gelatin. The capsule shell imprinting ink contains the following inactive ingredients: shellac, black iron oxide and potassium hydroxide.
A variety of clinical studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of total cholesterol (total-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apo B), an LDL membrane complex, are associated with human atherosclerosis. Similarly, decreased levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and its transport complex, apolipoprotein A (apo AI and apo AII) are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Epidemiologic investigations have established that cardiovascular morbidity and mortality vary directly with the level of total-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides, and inversely with the level of HDL-C. The independent effect of raising HDL-C or lowering triglycerides (TG) on the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been determined.
Fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of fenofibrate, produces reductions in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, total triglycerides and triglyceride rich lipoprotein (VLDL) in treated patients. In addition, treatment with fenofibrate results in increases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and apoproteins apo AI and apo AII.
The effects of fenofibric acid seen in clinical practice have been explained in vivo in transgenic mice and in vitro in human hepatocyte cultures by the activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα). Through this mechanism, fenofibrate increases lipolysis and elimination of triglyceride-rich particles from plasma by activating lipoprotein lipase and reducing production of apoproteins C-III (an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase activity). The resulting fall in triglycerides produces an alteration in the size and composition of LDL from small, dense particles (which are thought to be atherogenic due to their susceptibility to oxidation), to large buoyant particles. These larger particles have a greater affinity for cholesterol receptors and are catabolized rapidly. Activation of PPARα also induces an increase in the synthesis of apoproteins A-I, A-II and HDL-cholesterol.
Fenofibrate also reduces serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic and normal individuals by increasing the urinary excretion of uric acid.
Fenofibrate capsules, USP are indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of LDL-C, Total-C, Triglycerides and apo B in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia (Fredrickson Types IIa and IIb). Lipid altering agents should be used in addition to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol when response to diet and non-pharmacological interventions alone has been inadequate (see National Cholesterol Education Program [NCEP] Treatment Guidelines, below).
Fenofibrate capsules, USP are also indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for treatment of adult patients with hypertriglyceridemia (Fredrickson Types IV and V hyperlipidemia). Improving glycemic control in diabetic patients showing fasting chylomicronemia will usually reduce fasting triglycerides and eliminate chylomicronemia thereby obviating the need for pharmacologic intervention.
Markedly elevated levels of serum triglycerides (e.g. > 2,000 mg/dL) may increase the risk of developing pancreatitis. The effect of fenofibrate therapy on reducing this risk has not been adequately studied.
Drug therapy is not indicated for patients with Type I hyperlipoproteinemia, who have elevations of chylomicrons and plasma triglycerides, but who have normal levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Inspection of plasma refrigerated for 14 hours is helpful in distinguishing Types I, IV and V hyperlipoproteinemia2.
The initial treatment for dyslipidemia is dietary therapy specific for the type of lipoprotein abnormality. Excess body weight and excess alcoholic intake may be important factors in hypertriglyceridemia and should be addressed prior to any drug therapy. Physical exercise can be an important ancillary measure. Diseases contributory to hyperlipidemia, such as hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus should be looked for and adequately treated. Estrogen therapy, like thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers, is sometimes associated with massive rises in plasma triglycerides, especially in subjects with familial hypertriglyceridemia. In such cases, discontinuation of the specific etiologic agent may obviate the need for specific drug therapy of hypertriglyceridemia.
The use of drugs should be considered only when reasonable attempts have been made to obtain satisfactory results with non-drug methods. If the decision is made to use drugs, the patient should be instructed that this does not reduce the importance of adhering to diet (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
|Type||Lipoprotein Elevated||Lipid Elevation|
|C = cholesterol
TG = triglycerides
LDL = low density lipoprotein
VLDL = very low density lipoprotein
IDL = intermediate density lipoprotein
|III (rare)||IDL||C, TG||—|
|V (rare)||Chylomicrons, VLDL||TG||↑↔|
|Definite Athlerosclerotic Disease*||Two or More Other Risk Factors†||LDL-Cholesterol mg/dL (mmol/L)|
|No||No||≥ 190 (≥ 4.9)||< 160 (< 4.1)|
|No||Yes||≥ 160 (≥ 4.1)||< 130 (< 3.4)|
|Yes||Yes or No||≥ 130‡ (≥ 3.4)||< 100 (< 2.6)|
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.