Fenoprofen Calcium (Page 4 of 6)

8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary
Use of NSAIDs, including FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP, during the third trimester of pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Avoid use of NSAIDs, including FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP, in pregnant women starting at 30 weeks of gestation (third trimester).

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP in pregnant women. Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In the general U.S. population, all clinically recognized pregnancies, regardless of drug exposure, have a background rate of 2-4% for major malformations, and 15-20% for pregnancy loss.

In animal reproduction studies, embryo-fetal lethality and skeletal abnormalities were noted in offspring of pregnant rabbits following oral administration of fenoprofen during organogenesis at 0.6 times the maximum human daily dose of 3200 mg/day. However, there were no major malformations noted following oral administration of fenoprofen calcium to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at exposures up to 0.3 and 0.6 times the maximum human daily dose of 3200 mg/day.

Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as fenoprofen, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss.

Clinical Considerations
Labor or Delivery
There are no studies on the effects of FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDS, including fenoprofen, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth.

Data
Human Data
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP in pregnant women. Data from observational studies regarding potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive.

Animal data
Pregnant rats were treated with fenoprofen using oral doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg (0.15 times and 0.3 times the maximum human daily dose (MHDD) of 3200 mg/day based on body surface area comparison) during the period of organogenesis. No major malformations were noted and there was no evidence of maternal toxicity at these doses, however, the exposures were below the exposures that will occur in humans.
Pregnant rabbits were treated with fenoprofen using oral doses of 50 or 100 mg/kg (0.3 times and 0.6 times the MHDD of 3200 mg/day based on body surface area comparison) during the period of organogenesis. Maternal toxicity (mortality) was noted in the high dose animals. Although no major malformations were noted, there was an increased incidence of embryo-fetal lethality and skeletal abnormalities were present at 0.6 times the MHDD.
Pregnant rats were treated from Gestation Day 14 through Post-Natal Day 20 with oral doses of fenoprofen of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg (0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.15, or 0.3 times the MDD of 3200 mg/day based on body surface area comparison). All doses produced significant toxicity, including vaginal bleeding, prolonged parturition, increased stillbirths, and maternal deaths.
Pregnant rats were treated from Gestation Day 6 through Gestation Day 19 and Post Partum Day 1 to 20 (excluding parturition) with an oral dose of fenoprofen of 100 mg/kg (0.3 times the MDD of 3200 mg/day based on body surface area comparison) demonstrated only a small increase in the incidence of impaired parturition despite the presence of maternal toxicity (gastrointestinal ulceration and renal toxicity).

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary
In a published study, after a dose of 600 mg every 6 hours for 4 days in postpartum mothers, breastmilk fenoprofen levels were reportedly 1.6% of those in maternal plasma. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Infertility
Females
Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandinmediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients under the age of 18 have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 5.13) ].

10. OVERDOSAGE

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, 5.6) ].

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).

11. DESCRIPTION

FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP capsule is a nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drug available in 400 mg capsule form for oral administration.

The 400 mg capsule is opaque green cap and opaque blue body, imprinted with “”NALFON 400 mg” on the cap and “EP 123″ on the body.

The chemical name is Benzenaecetic acid, α-methyl-3-phenoxy-, calcium salt dihydrate, (±)-. The molecular weight is 558.65. Its molecular formula is C 30 H 26 CaO 6 •2H 2 O, and it has the following chemical structure.

Chemical Structure

Fenoprofen Calcium is an arylacetic acid derivative. It is a white crystalline powder. At 25°C, it dissolves to a 15 mg/mL solution in alcohol (95%). It is slightly soluble in water and insoluble in benzene.The pKa of fenoprofen calcium is 4.5 at 25°C.

FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP capsules contain fenoprofen calcium as the dihydrate in an amount equivalent 400 mg (1.65 mmol) of fenoprofen.

Inactive ingredients in FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP capsules are crospovidone, magnesium stearate, sodium lauryl sulfate, and talc. In addition, the 400 mg capsules contain gelatin, D&C Yellow #10, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Red #40, FD&C Yellow #6, and titanium dioxide.

12. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Fernoprofen has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.

The mechanism of action of FENOPROFEN CALCIUM, USP, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but involves inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2).

Fenoprofen is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. Fenoprofen concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Because fenoprofen is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

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