FIBRICOR (Page 5 of 7)

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Two dietary carcinogenicity studies have been conducted in rats with fenofibrate. In the first 24-month study, Wistar rats were dosed with fenofibrate at 10, 45, and 200 mg/kg/day, approximately 0.3, 1, and 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 300 mg fenofibrate daily, equivalent to 105 mg of FIBRICOR daily, based on body surface area comparisons. At a dose of 200 mg/kg/day (at 6 times the MRHD), the incidence of liver carcinomas was significantly increased in both sexes. A statistically significant increase in pancreatic carcinomas was observed in males at 1 and 6 times the MRHD; an increase in pancreatic adenomas and benign testicular interstitial cell tumors was observed at 6 times the MRHD in males. In a second 24-month rat carcinogenicity study in a different strain of rats (Sprague-Dawley), doses of 10 and 60 mg/kg/day (0.3 and 2 times the MRHD) produced significant increases in the incidence of pancreatic acinar adenomas in both sexes and increases in testicular interstitial cell tumors in males at 2 times the MRHD.

A 117-week carcinogenicity study was conducted in rats comparing three drugs: fenofibrate 10 and 60 mg/kg/day (0.3 and 2 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons), clofibrate (400 mg/kg/day; 2 times the human dose), and gemfibrozil (250 mg/kg/day; 2 times the human dose, based on mg/m2 surface area). Fenofibrate increased pancreatic acinar adenomas in both sexes. Clofibrate increased hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic acinar adenomas in males and hepatic neoplastic nodules in females. Gemfibrozil increased hepatic neoplastic nodules in males and females, while all three drugs increased testicular interstitial cell tumors in males.

In a 21-month study in CF-1 mice, fenofibrate 10, 45, and 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2, 1, and 3 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons) significantly increased the liver carcinomas in both sexes at 3 times the MRHD. In a second 18-month study at 10, 60, and 200 mg/kg/day, fenofibrate significantly increased the liver carcinomas in male mice and liver adenomas in female mice at 3 times the MRHD.

Electron microscopy studies have demonstrated peroxisomal proliferation following fenofibrate administration to the rat. An adequate study to test for peroxisome proliferation in humans has not been done, but changes in peroxisome morphology and numbers have been observed in humans after treatment with other members of the fibrate class when liver biopsies were compared before and after treatment in the same individual.

Fenofibrate has been demonstrated to be devoid of mutagenic potential in the following tests: Ames, mouse lymphoma, chromosomal aberration and unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary rat hepatocytes.

In fertility studies rats were given oral dietary doses of fenofibrate, males received 61 days prior to mating and females 15 days prior to mating through weaning which resulted in no adverse effect on fertility at doses up to 300 mg/kg/day (10 times the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons).

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Severe Hypertriglyceridemia

The effects of fenofibrate on serum triglycerides were studied in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of 147 hypertriglyceridemic patients. Patients were treated for eight weeks under protocols that differed only in that one protocol entered patients with baseline triglyceride (TG) levels of 500 to 1500 mg/dL, and the other TG levels of 350 to 500 mg/dL.

In patients with hypertriglyceridemia and normal cholesterolemia with or without hyperchylomicronemia, treatment with fenofibrate at dosages equivalent to 105 mg of FIBRICOR decreased primarily very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides and VLDL cholesterol. Treatment of some with elevated triglycerides often results in an increase of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (see Table 4).

Table 4. Effects of Fenofibrate in Patients with Severe Hypertriglyceridemia
*
= p < 0.05 vs. Placebo
Study 1 Placebo Fenofibrate
Baseline TG levels 350 to 499 mg/dL N Baseline (Mean) Endpoint (Mean) % Change (Mean) N Baseline (Mean) Endpoint (Mean) % Change (Mean)
Triglycerides 28 449 450 -0.5 27 432 223 -46.2*
VLDL Triglycerides 19 367 350 2.7 19 350 178 -44.1*
Total Cholesterol 28 255 261 2.8 27 252 227 -9.1*
HDL Cholesterol 28 35 36 4 27 34 40 19.6*
LDL Cholesterol 28 120 129 12 27 128 137 14.5
VLDL Cholesterol 27 99 99 5.8 27 92 46 -44.7*
Study 2 Placebo Fenofibrate
Baseline TG levels 500 to 1500 mg/dL N Baseline (Mean) Endpoint (Mean) % Change (Mean) N Baseline (Mean) Endpoint (Mean) % Change (Mean)
Triglycerides 44 710 750 7.2 48 726 308 -54.5*
VLDL Triglycerides 29 537 571 18.7 33 543 205 -50.6*
Total Cholesterol 44 272 271 0.4 48 261 223 -13.8*
HDL Cholesterol 44 27 28 5.0 48 30 36 22.9*
LDL Cholesterol 42 100 90 -4.2 45 103 131 45.0*
VLDL Cholesterol 42 137 142 11.0 45 126 54 -49.4*

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