Fluconazole

FLUCONAZOLE- fluconazole tablet
Golden State Medical Supply, Inc.

DESCRIPTION

Fluconazole, the first of a new subclass of synthetic triazole antifungal agents, is available as tablets for oral administration.

Fluconazole is designated chemically as 2,4-difluoro-α,α 1 -bis(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl) benzyl alcohol with an empirical formula of C 13 H 12 F 2 N 6 O and molecular weight of 306.3. The structural formula is:

structure

Fluconazole is a white crystalline solid which is slightly soluble in water and saline.

Each Fluconazole Tablet USP contains 150 mg of fluconazole USP and the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous, FD&C Red No. 40 aluminum lake, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and povidone.

Fluconazole Tablets USP meets USP Dissolution Test 2.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism

The pharmacokinetic properties of fluconazole are similar following administration by the intravenous or oral routes. In normal volunteers, the bioavailability of orally administered fluconazole is over 90% compared with intravenous administration. Bioequivalence was established between the 100 mg tablet and both suspension strengths when administered as a single 200 mg dose.

Peak plasma concentrations (C max ) in fasted normal volunteers occur between 1 and 2 hours with a terminal plasma elimination half-life of approximately 30 hours (range: 20 to 50 hours) after oral administration.

In fasted normal volunteers, administration of a single oral 400 mg dose of fluconazole leads to a mean C max of 6.72 mcg/mL (range: 4.12 to 8.08 mcg/mL) and after single oral doses of 50 to 400 mg, fluconazole plasma concentrations and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) are dose proportional.

The C max and AUC data from a food-effect study involving administration of fluconazole tablets to healthy volunteers under fasting conditions and with a high-fat meal indicated that exposure to the drug is not affected by food. Therefore, fluconazole tablets may be taken without regard to meals. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

Steady-state concentrations are reached within 5 to 10 days following oral doses of 50 to 400 mg given once daily. Administration of a loading dose (on Day 1) of twice the usual daily dose results in plasma concentrations close to steady-state by the second day. The apparent volume of distribution of fluconazole approximates that of total body water. Plasma protein binding is low (11% to 12%). Following either single- or multiple oral doses for up to 14 days, fluconazole penetrates into all body fluids studied (see table below). In normal volunteers, saliva concentrations of fluconazole were equal to or slightly greater than plasma concentrations regardless of dose, route, or duration of dosing. In patients with bronchiectasis, sputum concentrations of fluconazole following a single 150 mg oral dose were equal to plasma concentrations at both 4 and 24 hours post dose. In patients with fungal meningitis, fluconazole concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are approximately 80% of the corresponding plasma concentrations.

A single oral 150 mg dose of fluconazole administered to 27 patients penetrated into vaginal tissue, resulting in tissue: plasma ratios ranging from 0.94 to 1.14 over the first 48 hours following dosing.

A single oral 150 mg dose of fluconazole administered to 14 patients penetrated into vaginal fluid, resulting in fluid: plasma ratios ranging from 0.36 to 0.71 over the first 72 hours following dosing.

Tissue or Fluid

Ratio of Fluconazole Tissue (Fluid)/Plasma Concentration*

Cerebrospinal fluid

0.5 to 0.9

Saliva

1

Sputum

1

Blister fluid

1

Urine

10

Normal skin

10

Nails

1

Blister skin

2

Vaginal tissue

1

Vaginal fluid

0.4 to 0.7

* Relative to concurrent concentrations in plasma in subjects with normal renal function. Independent of degree of meningeal inflammation.

In normal volunteers, fluconazole is cleared primarily by renal excretion, with approximately 80% of the administered dose appearing in the urine as unchanged drug. About 11% of the dose is excreted in the urine as metabolites.

The pharmacokinetics of fluconazole are markedly affected by reduction in renal function. There is an inverse relationship between the elimination half-life and creatinine clearance. The dose of fluconazole may need to be reduced in patients with impaired renal function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) A 3-hour hemodialysis session decreases plasma concentrations by approximately 50%.

In normal volunteers, fluconazole administration (doses ranging from 200 mg to 400 mg once daily for up to 14 days) was associated with small and inconsistent effects on testosterone concentrations, endogenous corticosteroid concentrations, and the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol response.

Pharmacokinetics in Children

In children, the following pharmacokinetic data {Mean (%cv)} have been reported:

Age Studied

Dose (mg/kg)

Clearance (mL/min/kg)

Half-life (Hours)

Cmax (mcg/mL)

Vdss (L/kg)

9 months to 13 years

Single-Oral 2 mg/kg

0.40 (38%) N=14

25.0

2.9 (22%) N=16

9 months to 13 years

Single-Oral 8 mg/kg

0.51 (60%) N=15

19.5

9.8 (20%) N=15

5 to 15 years

Multiple IV 2 mg/kg

0.49 (40%) N=4

17.4

5.5 (25%) N=5

0.722 (36%) N=4

5 to 15 years

Multiple IV 4 mg/kg

0.59 (64%) N=5

15.2

11.4 (44%) N=6

0.729 (33%) N=5

5 to 15 years

Multiple IV 8 mg/kg

0.66 (31%) N=7

17.6

14.1 (22%) N=8

1.069 (37%) N=7

Clearance corrected for body weight was not affected by age in these studies. Mean body clearance in adults is reported to be 0.23 (17%) mL/min/kg.

In premature newborns (gestational age 26 to 29 weeks), the mean (%cv) clearance within 36 hours of birth was 0.180 (35%, N=7) mL/min/kg, which increased with time to a mean of 0.218 (31%, N=9) mL/min/kg six days later and 0.333 (56%, N=4) mL/min/kg 12 days later. Similarly, the half-life was 73.6 hours, which decreased with time to a mean of 53.2 hours six days later and 46.6 hours 12 days later.

Pharmacokinetics in Elderly

A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in 22 subjects, 65 years of age or older receiving a single 50 mg oral dose of fluconazole. Ten of these patients were concomitantly receiving diuretics. The C max was 1.54 mcg/mL and occurred at 1.3 hours post dose. The mean AUC was 76.4± 20.3 mcg∙h/mL, and the mean terminal half-life was 46.2 hours. These pharmacokinetic parameter values are higher than analogous values reported for normal young male volunteers. Co-administration of diuretics did not significantly alter the AUC or C max . In addition, creatinine clearance (74 mL/min), the percent of drug recovered unchanged in urine (0 to 24 hours, 22%), and the fluconazole renal clearance estimates (0.124 mL/min/kg) for the elderly were generally lower than those of younger volunteers. Thus, the alteration of fluconazole disposition in the elderly appears to be related to reduced renal function characteristic of this group. A plot of each subject’s terminal elimination half-life versus creatinine clearance compared to the predicted half-life – creatinine clearance curve derived from normal subjects and subjects with varying degrees of renal insufficiency indicated that 21 of 22 subjects fell within the 95% confidence limit of the predicted half-life – creatinine clearance curves. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that higher values for the pharmacokinetic parameters observed in the elderly subjects compared to normal young male volunteers are due to the decreased kidney function that is expected in the elderly.

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