FLUDEOXYGLUCOSE F 18 (Page 3 of 4)

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Distribution: In four healthy male volunteers, receiving an intravenous administration of 30 seconds in duration, the arterial blood level profile for Fludeoxyglucose F 18 decayed triexponentially. The effective half-life ranges of the three phases were 0.2-0.3 minutes, 10-13 minutes with a mean and standard deviation (STD) of 11.6 (±) 1.1 min, and 80-95 minutes with a mean and STD of 88 (±) 4 min.

Plasma protein binding of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 has not been studied.

Metabolism: Fludeoxyglucose F 18 is transported into cells and phosphorylated to [ 18 F]-FDG-6- phosphate at a rate proportional to the rate of glucose utilization within that tissue. [F 18]-FDG-6-phosphate presumably is metabolized to 2-deoxy-2-[F 18]fluoro-6-phospho-D-mannose([F 18]FDM-6-phosphate).

Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection may contain several impurities (e.g., 2-deoxy-2-chloro-D-glucose (ClDG)). Biodistribution and metabolism of ClDG are presumed to be similar to Fludeoxyglucose F 18 and would be expected to result in intracellular formation of 2-deoxy-2-chloro-6-phospho-D-glucose (ClDG-6-phosphate) and 2-deoxy-2-chloro-6-phospho-D-mannose (ClDM-6-phosphate). The phosphorylated deoxyglucose compounds are dephosphorylated and the resulting compounds (FDG, FDM, ClDG, and ClDM) presumably leave cells by passive diffusion. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 and related compounds are cleared from non-cardiac tissues within 3 to 24 hours after administration. Clearance from the cardiac tissue may require more than 96 hours. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 that is not involved in glucose metabolism in any tissue is then excreted in the urine.

Elimination: Fludeoxyglucose F 18 is cleared from most tissues within 24 hours and can be eliminated from the body unchanged in the urine. Three elimination phases have been identified in the reviewed literature. Within 33 minutes, a mean of 3.9% of the administrated radioactive dose was measured in the urine. The amount of radiation exposure of the urinary bladder at two hours post-administration suggests that 20.6% (mean) of the radioactive dose was present in the bladder.

Special Populations: The pharmacokinetics of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection have not been studied in renally-impaired, hepatically impaired or pediatric patients. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 is eliminated through the renal system. Avoid excessive radiation exposure to this organ system and adjacent tissues.

The effects of fasting, varying blood sugar levels, conditions of glucose intolerance, and diabetes mellitus on Fludeoxyglucose F 18 distribution in humans have not been ascertained [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Animal studies have not been performed to evaluate the Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential or effects on fertility.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Oncology

The efficacy of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection in positron emission tomography cancer imaging was demonstrated in 16 independent studies. These studies prospectively evaluated the use of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 in patients with suspected or known malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer, colo-rectal, pancreatic, breast, thyroid, melanoma, Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and various types of metastatic cancers to lung, liver, bone, and axillary nodes. All these studies had at least 50 patients and used pathology as a standard of truth. The Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection doses in the studies ranged from 200 MBq to 740 MBq with a median and mean dose of 370 MBq.

In the studies, the diagnostic performance of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection varied with the type of cancer, size of cancer, and other clinical conditions. False negative and false positive scans were observed. Negative Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection PET scans do not exclude the diagnosis of cancer. Positive Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection PET scans can not replace pathology to establish a diagnosis of cancer. Non-malignant conditions such as fungal infections, inflammatory processes and benign tumors have patterns of increased glucose metabolism that may give rise to false-positive scans. The efficacy of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection PET imaging in cancer screening was not studied.

14.2 Cardiology

The efficacy of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection for cardiac use was demonstrated in ten independent, prospective studies of patients with coronary artery disease and chronic left ventricular systolic dysfunction who were scheduled to undergo coronary revascularization. Before revascularization, patients underwent PET imaging with Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection (74 – 370 MBq, 2 – 10 mCi) and perfusion imaging with other diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals. Doses of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection ranged from 74-370 MBq (2-10 mCi). Segmental, left ventricular, wall-motion assessments of asynergic areas made before revascularization were compared in a blinded manner to assessments made after successful revascularization to identify myocardial segments with functional recovery.

Left ventricular myocardial segments were predicted to have reversible loss of systolic function if they showed Fludeoxyglucose F 18 accumulation and reduced perfusion (i.e., flow-metabolism mismatch). Conversely, myocardial segments were predicted to have irreversible loss of systolic function if they showed reductions in both Fludeoxyglucose F 18 accumulation and perfusion (i.e., matched defects).

Findings of flow-metabolism mismatch in a myocardial segment may suggest that successful revascularization will restore myocardial function in that segment. However, false-positive tests occur regularly, and the decision to have a patient undergo revascularization should not be based on PET findings alone. Similarly, findings of a matched defect in a myocardial segment may suggest that myocardial function will not recover in that segment, even if it is successfully revascularized. However, false-negative tests occur regularly, and the decision to recommend against coronary revascularization, or to recommend a cardiac transplant, should not be based on PET findings alone. The reversibility of segmental dysfunction as predicted with Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET imaging depends on successful coronary revascularization. Therefore, in patients with a low likelihood of successful revascularization, the diagnostic usefulness of PET imaging with Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection is more limited.

14.3 Neurology

In a prospective, open label trial, Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection was evaluated in 86 patients with epilepsy. Each patient received a dose of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection in the range of 185-370 MBq (5-10 mCi). The mean age was 16.4 years (range: 4 months — 58 years; of these, 42 patients were less than 12 years and 16 patients were less than 2 years old). Patients had a known diagnosis of complex partial epilepsy and were under evaluation for surgical treatment of their seizure disorder. Seizure foci had been previously identified on ictal EEGs and sphenoidal EEGs. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection PET imaging confirmed previous diagnostic findings in 16% (14/87) of the patients; in 34% (30/87) of the patients, Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection PET images provided new findings. In 32% (27/87), imaging with Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection was inconclusive. The impact of these imaging findings on clinical outcomes is not known.

Several other studies comparing imaging with Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection results to subsphenoidal EEG, MRI and/or surgical findings supported the concept that the degree of hypometabolism corresponds to areas of confirmed epileptogenic foci. The safety and effectiveness of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection to distinguish idiopathic epileptogenic foci from tumors or other brain lesions that may cause seizures have not been established.

15 REFERENCES

  1. Gallagher B.M., Ansari A., Atkins H., Casella V., Christman D.R., Fowler J.S., Ido T., MacGregor R.R., Som P., Wan C.N., Wolf A.P., Kuhl D.E., and Reivich M. “Radiopharmaceuticals XXVII. 18F-labeled 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose as a radiopharmaceutical for measuring regional myocardial glucose metabolism in vivo: tissue distribution and imaging studies in animals,” J Nucl Med, 1977; 18, 990-6.
  2. Jones S.C., Alavi, A., Christman D., Montanez, I., Wolf, A.P., and Reivich M. “The radiation dosimetry of 2 [F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in man,” J Nucl Med, 1982; 23, 613-617.
  3. Kocher, D.C. “Radioactive Decay Tables: A handbook of decay data for application to radiation dosimetry and radiological assessments,” 1981, DOE/TIC-I 1026, 89.
  4. ICRP Publication 53, Volume 18, No. l-4,1987, pages 75-76.

16 HOW SUPPLIED

Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection is supplied in a multi-dose, capped 30 mL glass vial containing between 0.740 – 11.1GBq/mL (20 — 300 mCi/mL), of no carrier added 2-deoxy-2-[F 18] fluoro-D-glucose, at end of synthesis, in approximately 25-30 mL. The contents of each vial are sterile, pyrogen-free and preservative-free.

Receipt, transfer, handling, possession, or use of this product is subject to the radioactive material regulations and licensing requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Agreement States or Licensing States as appropriate.

Store the Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection vial upright in a lead shielded container at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F).

Store and dispose of Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection in accordance with the regulations and a general license, or its equivalent, of an Agreement State or a Licensing State.

The expiration date and time are provided on the container label. Use Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection within 12 hours from the EOS time.

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