Fluoxetine (Page 11 of 13)
14.4 Panic Disorder
The effectiveness of fluoxetine in the treatment of Panic Disorder was demonstrated in 2 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies of adult outpatients who had a primary diagnosis of Panic Disorder (DSM-IV), with or without agoraphobia.
Study 1 (N=180 randomized) was a 12-week flexible-dose study. Fluoxetine was initiated at 10 mg/day for the first week, after which patients were dosed in the range of 20 to 60 mg/day on the basis of clinical response and tolerability. A statistically significantly greater percentage of fluoxetine-treated patients were free from panic attacks at endpoint than placebo-treated patients, 42% versus 28%, respectively.
Study 2 (N=214 randomized) was a 12-week flexible-dose study. Fluoxetine was initiated at 10 mg/day for the first week, after which patients were dosed in a range of 20 to 60 mg/day on the basis of clinical response and tolerability. A statistically significantly greater percentage of fluoxetine-treated patients were free from panic attacks at endpoint than placebo-treated patients, 62% versus 44%, respectively.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
16.1 How Supplied
Fluoxetine Oral Solution, USP (contains fluoxetine hydrochloride, equivalent to 20 mg/5mL of fluoxetine), is a clear, colorless liquid with mint flavor, is available in 120 mL bottles (NDC 54838-523-40).
16.2 Storage and Handling
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Protect from light.
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure.
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Healthcare providers should instruct their patients to read the Medication Guide before starting therapy with fluoxetine and to reread it each time the prescription is renewed.
Healthcare providers should inform patients, their families, and their caregivers about the benefits and risks associated with treatment with fluoxetine and should counsel them in its appropriate use. Healthcare providers should instruct patients, their families, and their caregivers to read the Medication Guide and should assist them in understanding its contents. Patients should be given the opportunity to discuss the contents of the Medication Guide and to obtain answers to any questions they may have.
Patients should be advised of the following issues and asked to alert their healthcare provider if these occur while taking fluoxetine oral solution, USP.
Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults
Patients, their families, and their caregivers should be encouraged to be alert to the emergence of anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, other unusual changes in behavior, worsening of depression, and suicidal ideation, especially early during antidepressant treatment and when the dose is adjusted up or down. Families and caregivers of patients should be advised to look for the emergence of such symptoms on a day-to-day basis, since changes may be abrupt. Such symptoms should be reported to the patient’s prescriber or health professional, especially if they are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms. Symptoms such as these may be associated with an increased risk for suicidal thinking and behavior and indicate a need for very close monitoring and possibly changes in the medication [see Box Warning and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) ].
Patients should be cautioned about the risk of serotonin syndrome with the concomitant use of fluoxetine and other serotonergic agents including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, amphetamines, and St. John’s Wort [ see Contraindications ( 4.1), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2), and Drug Interactions (7.3) ] .
Patients should be advised of the signs and symptoms associated with serotonin syndrome that may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular changes (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be cautioned to seek medical care immediately if they experience these symptoms.
Allergy Reactions and Rash
Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they develop a rash or hives [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3) ]. Patients should also be advised of the signs and symptoms associated with a severe allergic reaction, including swelling of the face, eyes, or mouth, or have trouble breathing. Patients should be cautioned to seek medical care immediately if they experience these symptoms.
Patients should be cautioned about the concomitant use of fluoxetine and NSAIDs, aspirin, warfarin, or other drugs that affect coagulation since combined use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and these agents have been associated with an increased risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7) and Drug Interactions (7.4) ]. Patients should be advised to call their doctor if they experience any increased or unusual bruising or bleeding while taking fluoxetine.
Patients should be advised that taking fluoxetine oral solution, USP can cause mild pupillary dilation, which in susceptible individuals, can lead to an episode of angle-closure glaucoma. Pre-existing glaucoma is almost always open-angle glaucoma because angle-closure glaucoma, when diagnosed, can be treated definitively with iridectomy. Open-angle glaucoma is not a risk factor for angle-closure glaucoma. Patients may wish to be examined to determine whether they are susceptible to angle closure, and have a prophylactic procedure (e.g., iridectomy), if they are susceptible [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8)].
Patients should be advised that hyponatremia has been reported as a result of treatment with SNRIs and SSRIs, including fluoxetine. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. More severe and/or acute cases have been associated with hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9) ].
Patients should be advised that QT interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmia including Torsades de Pointes have been reported in patients treated with fluoxetine. Signs and symptoms of ventricular arrhythmia include fast, slow, or irregular heart rate, dyspnea, syncope, or dizziness, which may indicate serious cardiac arrhythmia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.11)].
Potential for Cognitive and Motor Impairment
Fluoxetine may impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills. Patients should be advised to avoid driving a car or operating hazardous machinery until they are reasonably certain that their performance is not affected [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13)].
Use of Concomitant Medications
Patients should be advised to inform their physician if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription medication, including Symbyax® , Sarafem® , or over-the-counter drugs, including herbal supplements or alcohol. Patients should also be advised to inform their physicians if they plan to discontinue any medications they are taking while on fluoxetine.
Discontinuation of Treatment
Patients should be advised to take fluoxetine exactly as prescribed, and to continue taking fluoxetine as prescribed even after their symptoms improve. Patients should be advised that they should not alter their dosing regimen, or stop taking fluoxetine without consulting their physician [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.15) ]. Patients should be advised to consult with their healthcare provider if their symptoms do not improve with fluoxetine.
Advise patients that use of fluoxetine may cause symptoms of sexual dysfunction in both male and female patients. Inform patients that they should discuss any changes in sexual function and potential management strategies with their healthcare provider [see Warnings and Precautions (5.16)].
Use in Specific Populations
Pregnancy – Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during therapy. Fluoxetine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1) ].
Nursing Mothers – Patients should be advised to notify their physician if they intend to breast-feed an infant during therapy. Because fluoxetine is excreted in human milk, nursing while taking fluoxetine is not recommended [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
Pediatric Use of Fluoxetine – Fluoxetine is approved for use in pediatric patients with MDD and OCD [see Box Warningand Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) ]. Limited evidence is available concerning the longer-term effects of fluoxetine on the development and maturation of children and adolescent patients. Height and weight should be monitored periodically in pediatric patients receiving fluoxetine [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6) and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.4) ].
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