Do not use fluoxetine in combination with thioridazine or pimozide. Use fluoxetine with caution in combination with other drugs that cause QT prolongation. These include: specific antipsychotics (e.g., ziprasidone, iloperidone, chlorpromazine, mesoridazine, droperidol); specific antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin); Class 1A antiarrhythmic medications (e.g., quinidine, procainamide); Class III antiarrhythmics (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol); and others (e.g., pentamidine, levomethadyl acetate, methadone, halofantrine, mefloquine, dolasetron mesylate, probucol or tacrolimus). Fluoxetine is primarily metabolized by CYP2D6. Concomitant treatment with CYP2D6 inhibitors can increase the concentration of fluoxetine. Concomitant use of other highly protein-bound drugs can increase the concentration of fluoxetine [see Contraindications (4.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.11), Drug Interactions (7.7), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
When using fluoxetine and olanzapine in combination, also refer to the Use in Specific Populations section of the package insert for Symbyax.
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for Antidepressants at 1-844-405-6185 or visiting online at https://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/antidepressants/.
Available data from published epidemiologic studies and postmarketing reports over several decades have not established an increased risk of major birth defects or miscarriage. Some studies have reported an increased incidence of cardiovascular malformations; however, these studies results do not establish a causal relationship (see Data). There are risks associated with untreated depression in pregnancy and risks of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) (see Data) and poor neonatal adaptation with exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).
In rats and rabbits treated with fluoxetine during the period of organogenesis, there was no evidence of developmental effects at doses up to 1.6 and 3.9 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 60 mg/day given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis. However, in other reproductive studies in rats, an increase in stillborn pups, a decrease in pup weight, and an increase in pup deaths early after birth occurred at doses that are 1.5 times (during gestation) and 0.97 time (during gestation and lactation) the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the US general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Women who discontinue antidepressants during pregnancy are more likely to experience a relapse of major depression than women who continue antidepressants. This finding is from a prospective, longitudinal study that followed 201 pregnant women with a history of major depressive disorder who were euthymic and taking antidepressants at the beginning of pregnancy. Consider the risk of untreated depression when discontinuing or changing treatment with antidepressant medication during pregnancy and postpartum.
Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions
Neonates exposed to fluoxetine and other SSRI or SNRIs late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremors, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These findings are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SSRIs and SNRIs or possibly a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Human Data — It has been shown that SSRIs (including fluoxetine) can cross the placenta. Published epidemiological studies of pregnant women exposed to fluoxetine have not established an increased risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, and other adverse developmental outcomes. Several publications reported an increased incidence of cardiovascular malformations in children with in utero exposure to fluoxetine. However, these studies results do not establish a causal relationship. Methodologic limitations of these observational studies include possible exposure and outcome misclassification, lack of adequate controls, adjustment for confounders and confirmatory studies. However, these studies cannot definitely establish or exclude any drug-associated risk during pregnancy.
Exposure to SSRIs, particularly later in pregnancy, may have an increased risk for PPHN. PPHN occurs in 1-2 per 1000 live births in the general population and is associated with substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Animal Data — In embryofetal development studies in rats and rabbits, there was no evidence of malformations or developmental variations following administration of fluoxetine at doses up to 12.5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively (1.6 and 3.9 times, respectively, the MRHD of 60 mg given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis) throughout organogenesis. However, in rat reproduction studies, an increase in stillborn pups, a decrease in pup weight, and an increase in pup deaths during the first 7 days postpartum occurred following maternal exposure to 12 mg/kg/day (1.5 times the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis) during gestation or 7.5 mg/kg/day (0.97 time the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis) during gestation and lactation. There was no evidence of developmental neurotoxicity in the surviving offspring of rats treated with 12 mg/kg/day during gestation. The no-effect dose for rat pup mortality was 5 mg/kg/day (0.65 time the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis).
Data from published literature report the presence of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine in human milk (see Data). There are reports of agitation, irritability, poor feeding, and poor weight gain in infants exposed to fluoxetine through breast milk (see Clinical Considerations). There are no data on the effect of fluoxetine or its metabolites on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for fluoxetine and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from fluoxetine or the underlying maternal condition.
Infants exposed to fluoxetine should be monitored for agitation, irritability, poor feeding, and poor weight gain.
A study of 19 nursing mothers on fluoxetine with daily doses of 10 mg to 60 mg showed that fluoxetine was detectable in 30% of nursing infant sera (range: 1 to 84 ng/mL) whereas norfluoxetine was found in 85% (range: <1 to 265 ng/mL).
Use of fluoxetine in children – The efficacy of fluoxetine for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder was demonstrated in two 8- to 9-week placebo-controlled clinical trials with 315 pediatric outpatients ages 8 to ≤ 18 [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
The efficacy of fluoxetine for the treatment of OCD was demonstrated in one 13-week placebo-controlled clinical trial with 103 pediatric outpatients ages 7 to < 18 [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].
The safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients < 8 years of age in Major Depressive Disorder and < 7 years of age in OCD have not been established.
Fluoxetine pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 21 pediatric patients (ages 6 to ≤ 18) with Major Depressive Disorder or OCD [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The acute adverse reaction profiles observed in the 3 studies (N = 418 randomized; 228 fluoxetine-treated, 190 placebo-treated) were generally similar to that observed in adult studies with fluoxetine. The longer-term adverse reaction profile observed in the 19-week Major Depressive Disorder study (N = 219 randomized; 109 fluoxetine-treated, 110 placebo-treated) was also similar to that observed in adult trials with fluoxetine [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Manic reaction, including mania and hypomania, was reported in 6 (1 mania, 5 hypomania) out of 228 (2.6%) fluoxetine-treated patients and in 0 out of 190 (0%) placebo-treated patients. Mania/hypomania led to the discontinuation of 4 (1.8%) fluoxetine-treated patients from the acute phases of the 3 studies combined. Consequently, regular monitoring for the occurrence of mania/hypomania is recommended.
As with other SSRIs, decreased weight gain has been observed in association with the use of fluoxetine in children and adolescent patients. After 19 weeks of treatment in a clinical trial, pediatric subjects treated with fluoxetine gained an average of 1.1 cm less in height and 1.1 kg less in weight than subjects treated with placebo. In addition, fluoxetine treatment was associated with a decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels. The safety of fluoxetine treatment for pediatric patients has not been systematically assessed for chronic treatment longer than several months in duration. In particular, there are no studies that directly evaluate the longer-term effects of fluoxetine on the growth, development and maturation of children and adolescent patients. Therefore, height and weight should be monitored periodically in pediatric patients receiving fluoxetine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Fluoxetine is approved for use in pediatric patients with MDD and OCD [see Box Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Anyone considering the use of fluoxetine in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need.
Animal Data – Significant toxicity on muscle tissue, neurobehavior, reproductive organs, and bone development has been observed following exposure of juvenile rats to fluoxetine from weaning through maturity. Oral administration of fluoxetine to rats from weaning postnatal day 21 through adu lthood day 90 at 3 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, or 30 mg/kg/day was associated with testicular degeneration and necrosis, epididymal vacuolation and hypospermia (at 30 mg/kg/day corresponding to plasma exposures [AUC] approximately 5 to 10 times the average AUC in pediatric patients at the MRHD of 20 mg/day), increased serum levels of creatine kinase (at AUC as low as 1 to 2 times the average AUC in pediatric patients at the MRHD of 20 mg/day), skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis, decreased femur length/growth and body weight gain (at AUC 5 to 10 times the average AUC in pediatric patients at the MRHD of 20 mg/day). The high dose of 30 mg/kg/day exceeded a maximum tolerated dose. When animals were evaluated after a drug-free period (up to 11 weeks after cessation of dosing), fluoxetine was associated with neurobehavioral abnormalities (decreased reactivity at AUC as low as approximately 0.1 to 0.2 times the average AUC in pediatric patients at the MRHD and learning deficit at the high dose), and reproductive functional impairment (decreased mating at all doses and impaired fertility at the high dose). In addition, the testicular and epididymal microscopic lesions and decreased sperm concentrations found in high dose group were also observed, indicating that the drug effects on reproductive organs are irreversible. The reversibility of fluoxetine-induced muscle damage was not assessed.
These fluoxetine toxicities in juvenile rats have not been observed in adult animals. Plasma exposures (AUC) to fluoxetine in juvenile rats receiving 3 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, or 30 mg/kg/day doses in this study are approximately 0.1 to 0.2, 1 to 2, and 5 to 10 times, respectively, the average exposure in pediatric patients receiving the MRHD of 20 mg/day. Rat exposures to the major metabolite, norfluoxetine, are approximately 0.3 to 0.8, 1 to 8, and 3 to 20 times, respectively, the pediatric exposure at the MRHD.
A specific effect on bone development was reported in juvenile mice administered fluoxetine by the intraperitoneal route to 4 week old mice for 4 weeks at doses 0.5 and 2 times the oral MRHD of 20 mg/day on mg/m2 basis. There was a decrease in bone mineralization and density at both doses, but the overall growth (body weight gain or femur length) was not affected.
Use of fluoxetine in combination with olanzapine in children and adolescents: Safety and efficacy of fluoxetine and olanzapine in combination in patients 10 to 17 years of age have been established for the acute treatment of depressive episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder. Safety and effectiveness of fluoxetine and olanzapine in combination in patients less than 10 years of age have not been established.
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