It is not known whether fluticasone propionate is excreted in human breast milk. However, other corticosteroids have been detected in human milk. Subcutaneous administration to lactating rats of tritiated fluticasone propionate at a dose approximately 0.4 times the MRHDID for adults on a mg/m2 basis resulted in measurable radioactivity in milk.
Since there are no data from controlled trials on the use of intranasal Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray by nursing mothers, caution should be exercised when Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray is administered to a nursing woman.
The safety and effectiveness of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray in children aged 4 years and older have been established [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Six hundred fifty (650) subjects aged 4 to 11 years and 440 subjects aged 12 to 17 years were studied in US clinical trials with fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The safety and effectiveness of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray in children younger than 4 years have not been established.
Effects on Growth
Controlled clinical trials have shown that intranasal corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. This effect was observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with intranasal corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for “catch-up” growth following discontinuation of treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of pediatric patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids, including Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against the clinical benefits obtained and the risks associated with alternative therapies. To minimize the systemic effects of intranasal corticosteroids, including Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, each patient’s dosage should be titrated to the lowest dosage that effectively controls his/her symptoms.
A 1-year placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 150 pediatric subjects (aged 3 to 9 years) to assess the effect of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray (single daily dose of 200 mcg) on growth velocity. From the primary population receiving Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray (n = 56) and placebo (n = 52), the point estimate for growth velocity with Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray was 0.14 cm/year lower than placebo (95% CI: -0.54, 0.27 cm/year). Thus, no statistically significant effect on growth was noted compared with placebo. No evidence of clinically relevant changes in HPA axis function or bone mineral density was observed as assessed by 12-hour urinary cortisol excretion and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively.
The potential for Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray to cause growth suppression in susceptible patients or when given at higher than recommended dosages cannot be ruled out.
A limited number of subjects aged 65 years and older (n = 129) or 75 years and older (n = 11) have been treated with Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray in clinical trials. While the number of subjects is too small to permit separate analysis of efficacy and safety, the adverse reactions reported in this population were similar to those reported by younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Formal pharmacokinetic trials using Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray have not been conducted in subjects with hepatic impairment. Since fluticasone propionate is predominantly cleared by hepatic metabolism, impairment of liver function may lead to accumulation of fluticasone propionate in plasma. Therefore, patients with hepatic disease should be closely monitored.
Chronic overdosage may result in signs/symptoms of hypercorticism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Intranasal administration of 2 mg (10 times the recommended dose) of fluticasone propionate twice daily for 7 days was administered to healthy human volunteers. Adverse events reported with fluticasone propionate were similar to placebo, and no clinically significant abnormalities in laboratory safety tests were observed. Single oral doses up to 16 mg have been studied in human volunteers with no acute toxic effects reported. Repeat oral doses up to 80 mg daily for 10 days in volunteers and repeat oral doses up to 10 mg daily for 14 days in patients were well tolerated. Adverse reactions were of mild or moderate severity, and incidences were similar in active and placebo treatment groups. Acute overdosage with this dosage form is unlikely since 1 bottle of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray contains approximately 8 mg of fluticasone propionate.
The active component of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray is fluticasone propionate, a corticosteroid having the chemical name S -(fluoromethyl)6α,9-difluoro-11β,17-dihydroxy-16α-methyl-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-diene-17β-carbothioate, 17-propionate and the following chemical structure:
Fluticasone propionate is a white powder with a molecular weight of 500.6, and the empirical formula is C25 H31 F3 O5 S. It is practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylformamide, and slightly soluble in methanol and 95% ethanol.
Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray, 50 mcg is an aqueous suspension of microfine fluticasone propionate for topical administration to the nasal mucosa by means of a metering, atomizing spray pump. Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray also contains microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium, dextrose, 0.02% w/w benzalkonium chloride, polysorbate 80, and 0.25% w/w phenylethyl alcohol, and has a pH between 5 and 7.
After initial priming, each actuation delivers 50 mcg of fluticasone propionate in 100 mg of formulation through the nasal adapter.
Fluticasone propionate is a synthetic trifluorinated corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory activity. Fluticasone propionate has been shown in vitro to exhibit a binding affinity for the human glucocorticoid receptor that is 18 times that of dexamethasone, almost twice that of beclomethasone-17-monopropionate (BMP), the active metabolite of beclomethasone dipropionate, and over 3 times that of budesonide. Data from the McKenzie vasoconstrictor assay in man are consistent with these results. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.
The precise mechanism through which fluticasone propionate affects rhinitis symptoms is not known. Corticosteroids have been shown to have a wide range of effects on multiple cell types (e.g., mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes) and mediators (e.g., histamine, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, cytokines) involved in inflammation. In 7 trials in adults, Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray has decreased nasal mucosal eosinophils in 66% of patients (35% for placebo) and basophils in 39% of patients (28% for placebo). The direct relationship of these findings to long-term symptom relief is not known.
The potential systemic effects of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray on the HPA axis were evaluated. Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray given as 200 mcg once daily or 400 mcg twice daily was compared with placebo or oral prednisone 7.5 or 15 mg given in the morning. Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray at either dosage for 4 weeks did not affect the adrenal response to 6-hour cosyntropin stimulation, while both dosages of oral prednisone significantly reduced the response to cosyntropin.
A study specifically designed to evaluate the effect of Fluticasone Propionate on the QT interval has not been conducted.
The activity of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray is due to the parent drug, fluticasone propionate. Due to the low bioavailability by the intranasal route, the majority of the pharmacokinetic data was obtained via other routes of administration.
Indirect calculations indicate that fluticasone propionate delivered by the intranasal route has an absolute bioavailability averaging less than 2%. Trials using oral dosing of labeled and unlabeled drug have demonstrated that the oral systemic bioavailability of fluticasone propionate is negligible (<1%), primarily due to incomplete absorption and presystemic metabolism in the gut and liver. After intranasal treatment of patients with rhinitis for 3 weeks, fluticasone propionate plasma concentrations were above the level of detection (50 pg/mL) only when recommended doses were exceeded and then only in occasional samples at low plasma levels.
Following intravenous administration, the initial disposition phase for fluticasone propionate was rapid and consistent with its high lipid solubility and tissue binding. The volume of distribution averaged 4.2 L/kg.
The percentage of fluticasone propionate bound to human plasma proteins averaged 99%. Fluticasone propionate is weakly and reversibly bound to erythrocytes and is not significantly bound to human transcortin.
Following intravenous dosing, fluticasone propionate showed polyexponential kinetics and had a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 7.8 hours. The total blood clearance of fluticasone propionate is high (average: 1,093 mL/min), with renal clearance accounting for less than 0.02% of the total.
Metabolism: The only circulating metabolite detected in man is the 17β-carboxylic acid derivative of fluticasone propionate, which is formed through the CYP3A4 pathway. This metabolite had less affinity (approximately 1/2,000) than the parent drug for the glucocorticoid receptor of human lung cytosol in vitro and negligible pharmacological activity in animal studies. Other metabolites detected in vitro using cultured human hepatoma cells have not been detected in man.
Excretion: Less than 5% of a radiolabeled oral dose was excreted in the urine as metabolites, with the remainder excreted in the feces as parent drug and metabolites.
Fluticasone propionate nasal spray was not studied in any special populations, and no gender-specific pharmacokinetic data have been obtained.
Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 3A4: Ritonavir: Fluticasone propionate is a substrate of CYP3A4. Coadministration of fluticasone propionate and the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, ritonavir, is not recommended based upon a multiple-dose, crossover drug interaction trial in 18 healthy subjects. Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray (200 mcg once daily) was coadministered for 7 days with ritonavir (100 mg twice daily). Plasma fluticasone propionate concentrations following fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray alone were undetectable (<10 pg/mL) in most subjects, and when concentrations were detectable, peak levels (Cmax ) averaged 11.9 pg/mL (range: 10.8 to 14.1 pg/mL) and AUC(0–τ) averaged 8.43 pg•h/mL (range: 4.2 to 18.8 pg•h/mL). Fluticasone propionate Cmax and AUC(0–τ) increased to 318 pg/mL (range: 110 to 648 pg/mL) and 3,102.6 pg•h/mL (range: 1,207.1 to 5,662.0 pg•h/mL), respectively, after coadministration of ritonavir with fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray. This significant increase in plasma fluticasone propionate exposure resulted in a significant decrease (86%) in serum cortisol AUC.
Ketoconazole: Coadministration of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate (1,000 mcg) and ketoconazole (200 mg once daily) resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in plasma fluticasone propionate exposure and a 45% decrease in plasma cortisol AUC, but had no effect on urinary excretion of cortisol.
Erythromycin: In a multiple-dose drug interaction study, coadministration of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate (500 mcg twice daily) and erythromycin (333 mg 3 times daily) did not affect fluticasone propionate pharmacokinetics.
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