Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS should not be initiated in patients during rapidly deteriorating or potentially life-threatening episodes of asthma or COPD. Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS has not been studied in subjects with acutely deteriorating asthma or COPD. The initiation of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS in this setting is not appropriate.
Serious acute respiratory events, including fatalities, have been reported when salmeterol, a component of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS, has been initiated in patients with significantly worsening or acutely deteriorating asthma. In most cases, these have occurred in patients with severe asthma (e.g., patients with a history of corticosteroid dependence, low pulmonary function, intubation, mechanical ventilation, frequent hospitalizations, previous life‑threatening acute asthma exacerbations) and in some patients with acutely deteriorating asthma (e.g., patients with significantly increasing symptoms; increasing need for inhaled, short‑acting beta2 -agonists; decreasing response to usual medications; increasing need for systemic corticosteroids; recent emergency room visits; deteriorating lung function). However, these events have occurred in a few patients with less severe asthma as well. It was not possible from these reports to determine whether salmeterol contributed to these events.
Increasing use of inhaled, short-acting beta2 -agonists is a marker of deteriorating asthma. In this situation, the patient requires immediate reevaluation with reassessment of the treatment regimen, giving special consideration to the possible need for replacing the current strength of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS with a higher strength, adding additional ICS, or initiating systemic corticosteroids. Patients should not use more than 1 inhalation twice daily of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS.
Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS should not be used for the relief of acute symptoms, i.e., as rescue therapy for the treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm. Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS has not been studied in the relief of acute symptoms and extra doses should not be used for that purpose. Acute symptoms should be treated with an inhaled, short-acting beta2 -agonist.
When beginning treatment with Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS, patients who have been taking oral or inhaled, short-acting beta2 -agonists on a regular basis (e.g., 4 times a day) should be instructed to discontinue the regular use of these drugs.
5.3 Excessive Use of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS and Use with Other Long-acting Beta2 -agonists
Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS should not be used more often than recommended, at higher doses than recommended, or in conjunction with other medicines containing LABA, as an overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Patients using Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS should not use another medicine containing a LABA (e.g., salmeterol, formoterol fumarate, arformoterol tartrate, indacaterol) for any reason.
In clinical trials, the development of localized infections of the mouth and pharynx with Candida albicans has occurred in subjects treated with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS. When such an infection develops, it should be treated with appropriate local or systemic (i.e., oral) antifungal therapy while treatment with Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS continues, but at times therapy with Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS may need to be interrupted. Advise the patient to rinse his/her mouth with water without swallowing following inhalation to help reduce the risk of oropharyngeal candidiasis.
Physicians should remain vigilant for the possible development of pneumonia in patients with COPD as the clinical features of pneumonia and exacerbations frequently overlap.
Lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, have been reported in patients with COPD following the inhaled administration of corticosteroids, including fluticasone propionate and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS. In 2 replicate 1-year trials in 1,579 subjects with COPD, there was a higher incidence of pneumonia reported in subjects receiving fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 250/50 mcg (7%) than in those receiving salmeterol 50 mcg (3%). The incidence of pneumonia in the subjects treated with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS was higher in subjects older than 65 years (9%) compared with the incidence in subjects younger than 65 years (4%). [See Adverse Reactions (6.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.5).]
In a 3-year trial in 6,184 subjects with COPD, there was a higher incidence of pneumonia reported in subjects receiving fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 500/50 mcg compared with placebo (16% with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 500/50 mcg, 14% with fluticasone propionate 500 mcg, 11% with salmeterol 50 mcg, and 9% with placebo). Similar to what was seen in the 1-year trials with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 250/50 mcg, the incidence of pneumonia was higher in subjects older than 65 years (18% with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 500/50 mcg versus 10% with placebo) compared with subjects younger than 65 years (14% with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 500/50 mcg versus 8% with placebo). [See Adverse Reactions (6.2), Use in Specific Populations (8.5).]
Persons who are using drugs that suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In such children or adults who have not had these diseases or been properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affect the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If a patient is exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If a patient is exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
ICS should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculosis infections of the respiratory tract; systemic fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex.
Particular care is needed for patients who have been transferred from systemically active corticosteroids to ICS because deaths due to adrenal insufficiency have occurred in patients with asthma during and after transfer from systemic corticosteroids to less systemically available ICS. After withdrawal from systemic corticosteroids, a number of months are required for recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function.
Patients who have been previously maintained on 20 mg or more of prednisone (or its equivalent) may be most susceptible, particularly when their systemic corticosteroids have been almost completely withdrawn. During this period of HPA suppression, patients may exhibit signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency when exposed to trauma, surgery, or infection (particularly gastroenteritis) or other conditions associated with severe electrolyte loss. Although Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS may control asthma symptoms during these episodes, in recommended doses it supplies less than normal physiological amounts of glucocorticoid systemically and does NOT provide the mineralocorticoid activity that is necessary for coping with these emergencies.
During periods of stress or a severe asthma attack, patients who have been withdrawn from systemic corticosteroids should be instructed to resume oral corticosteroids (in large doses) immediately and to contact their physicians for further instruction. These patients should also be instructed to carry a warning card indicating that they may need supplementary systemic corticosteroids during periods of stress or a severe asthma attack.
Patients requiring oral corticosteroids should be weaned slowly from systemic corticosteroid use after transferring to Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS. Prednisone reduction can be accomplished by reducing the daily prednisone dose by 2.5 mg on a weekly basis during therapy with Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS. Lung function (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1 ] or morning peak expiratory flow [AM PEF]), beta-agonist use, and asthma symptoms should be carefully monitored during withdrawal of oral corticosteroids. In addition, patients should be observed for signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, such as fatigue, lassitude, weakness, nausea and vomiting, and hypotension.
Transfer of patients from systemic corticosteroid therapy to Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS may unmask allergic conditions previously suppressed by the systemic corticosteroid therapy (e.g., rhinitis, conjunctivitis, eczema, arthritis, eosinophilic conditions).
During withdrawal from oral corticosteroids, some patients may experience symptoms of systemically active corticosteroid withdrawal (e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, depression) despite maintenance or even improvement of respiratory function.
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