Fluticasone Propionate and Salmeterol DISKUS (Page 6 of 13)

6.3 Postmarketing Experience

In addition to adverse reactions reported from clinical trials, the following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of any formulation of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol, fluticasone propionate, and/or salmeterol regardless of indication. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to either their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or causal connection to fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS, fluticasone propionate, and/or salmeterol or a combination of these factors.

Cardiac Disorders

Arrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, extrasystoles, supraventricular tachycardia), ventricular tachycardia.

Endocrine Disorders

Cushing’s syndrome, Cushingoid features, growth velocity reduction in children/adolescents, hypercorticism.

Eye Disorders

Glaucoma.

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Abdominal pain, dyspepsia, xerostomia.

Immune System Disorders

Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reaction (including very rare anaphylactic reaction). Very rare anaphylactic reaction in patients with severe milk protein allergy.

Infections and Infestations

Esophageal candidiasis.

Metabolic and Nutrition Disorders

Hyperglycemia, weight gain.

Musculoskeletal, Connective Tissue, and Bone Disorders

Arthralgia, cramps, myositis, osteoporosis.

Nervous System Disorders

Paresthesia, restlessness.

Psychiatric Disorders

Agitation, aggression, depression. Behavioral changes, including hyperactivity and irritability, have been reported very rarely and primarily in children.

Reproductive System and Breast Disorders

Dysmenorrhea.

Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders

Chest congestion; chest tightness; dyspnea; facial and oropharyngeal edema, immediate bronchospasm; paradoxical bronchospasm; tracheitis; wheezing; reports of upper respiratory symptoms of laryngeal spasm, irritation, or swelling such as stridor or choking.

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders

Ecchymoses, photodermatitis.

Vascular Disorders

Pallor.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS has been used concomitantly with other drugs, including short-acting beta2 -agonists, methylxanthines, and intranasal corticosteroids, commonly used in patients with asthma or COPD without adverse drug reactions [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. No formal drug interaction trials have been performed with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS.

7.1 Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 3A4

Fluticasone propionate and salmeterol, the individual components of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS, are substrates of CYP3A4. The use of strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir, ketoconazole, telithromycin) with Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS is not recommended because increased systemic corticosteroid and increased cardiovascular adverse effects may occur.

Ritonavir

Fluticasone Propionate: A drug interaction trial with fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray in healthy subjects has shown that ritonavir (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) can significantly increase plasma fluticasone propionate exposure, resulting in significantly reduced serum cortisol concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. During postmarketing use, there have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving fluticasone propionate and ritonavir, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including Cushing’s syndrome and adrenal suppression.

Ketoconazole

Fluticasone Propionate: Coadministration of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate (1,000 mcg) and ketoconazole (200 mg once daily) resulted in a 1.9-fold increase in plasma fluticasone propionate exposure and a 45% decrease in plasma cortisol area under the curve (AUC), but had no effect on urinary excretion of cortisol.

Salmeterol: In a drug interaction trial in 20 healthy subjects, coadministration of inhaled salmeterol (50 mcg twice daily) and oral ketoconazole (400 mg once daily) for 7 days resulted in greater systemic exposure to salmeterol (AUC increased 16-fold and Cmax increased 1.4-fold). Three (3) subjects were withdrawn due to beta2 -agonist side effects (2 with prolonged QTc and 1 with palpitations and sinus tachycardia). Although there was no statistical effect on the mean QTc, coadministration of salmeterol and ketoconazole was associated with more frequent increases in QTc duration compared with salmeterol and placebo administration.

7.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors and Tricyclic Antidepressants

Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants, or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of such agents, because the action of salmeterol, a component of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS, on the vascular system may be potentiated by these agents.

7.3 Beta-adrenergic Receptor Blocking Agents

Beta-blockers not only block the pulmonary effect of beta-agonists, such as salmeterol, a component of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS, but may also produce severe bronchospasm in patients with asthma or COPD. Therefore, patients with asthma or COPD should not normally be treated with beta-blockers. However, under certain circumstances, there may be no acceptable alternatives to the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents for these patients; cardioselective beta-blockers could be considered, although they should be administered with caution.

7.4 Non–Potassium-Sparing Diuretics

The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from the administration of non–potassium-sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, such as salmeterol, a component of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is not known, caution is advised in the coadministration of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS with non–potassium-sparing diuretics.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

There are insufficient data on the use of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS or individual monoproducts, fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate, in pregnant women. There are clinical considerations with the use of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS in pregnant women. (See Clinical Considerations.) In animals, teratogenicity characteristic of corticosteroids, decreased fetal body weight and/or skeletal variations, in rats, mice, and rabbits were observed with subcutaneously administered maternal toxic doses of fluticasone propionate less than the maximum recommended human daily inhaled dose (MRHDID) on a mcg/m2 basis. (See Data.) However, fluticasone propionate administered via inhalation to rats decreased fetal body weight, but did not induce teratogenicity at a maternal toxic dose less than the MRHDID on a mcg/m2 basis. (See Data.) Experience with oral corticosteroids suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans. Oral administration of salmeterol to pregnant rabbits caused teratogenicity characteristic of beta-adrenoceptor stimulation at maternal doses approximately 50 times the MRHDID on an AUC basis. These adverse effects generally occurred at large multiples of the MRHDID when salmeterol was administered by the oral route to achieve high systemic exposures. No such effects occurred at an oral salmeterol dose approximately 20 times the MRHDID. (See Data.)

The estimated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryofetal Risk: In women with poorly or moderately controlled asthma, there is an increased risk of several perinatal outcomes such as pre-eclampsia in the mother and prematurity, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in the neonate. Pregnant women should be closely monitored and medication adjusted as necessary to maintain optimal control of asthma.

Labor and Delivery: There are no human studies evaluating the effects of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS during labor and delivery. Because of the potential for beta agonist interference with uterine contractility, use of Fluticasone Propionate/Salmeterol DISKUS during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risks.

Data

Human Data: Fluticasone Propionate: Following inhaled administration, fluticasone propionate was detected in the neonatal cord blood after delivery.

Animal Data: Fluticasone Propionate and Salmeterol: In an embryofetal development study with pregnant rats that received the combination of subcutaneous administration of fluticasone propionate and oral administration of salmeterol at doses of 0/1,000; 30/0; 10/100; 30/1,000; and 100/10,000 mcg/kg/day (as fluticasone propionate/salmeterol) during the period of organogenesis, findings were generally consistent with the individual monoproducts and there was no exacerbation of expected fetal effects. Omphalocele, increased embryofetal deaths, decreased body weight, and skeletal variations were observed in rat fetuses in the presence of maternal toxicity when combining fluticasone propionate at a dose approximately equivalent to the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 100 mcg/kg/day) and salmeterol at a dose approximately 970 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 10,000 mcg/kg/day). The rat no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was observed when combining fluticasone propionate at a dose approximately 0.3 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 30 mcg/kg/day) and salmeterol at a dose approximately 100 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 1,000 mcg/kg/day).

In an embryofetal development study with pregnant mice that received the combination of subcutaneous administration of fluticasone propionate and oral administration of salmeterol at doses of 0/1,400; 40/0; 10/200; 40/1,400; or 150/10,000 mcg/kg/day (as fluticasone propionate/salmeterol) during the period of organogenesis, findings were generally consistent with the individual monoproducts and there was no exacerbation of expected fetal effects. Cleft palate, fetal death, increased implantation loss, and delayed ossification were observed in mouse fetuses when combining fluticasone propionate at a dose approximately 0.7 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 150 mcg/kg/day) and salmeterol at a dose approximately 490 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 10,000 mcg/kg/day). No developmental toxicity was observed at combination doses of fluticasone propionate up to approximately 0.2 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 40 mcg/kg) and doses of salmeterol up to approximately 70 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 1,400 mcg/kg).

Fluticasone Propionate: In embryofetal development studies with pregnant rats and mice dosed by the subcutaneous route throughout the period of organogenesis, fluticasone propionate was teratogenic in both species. Omphalocele, decreased body weight, and skeletal variations were observed in rat fetuses, in the presence of maternal toxicity, at a dose approximately equivalent to the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 100 mcg/kg/day). The rat NOAEL was observed at approximately 0.3 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 30 mcg/kg/day). Cleft palate and fetal skeletal variations were observed in mouse fetuses at a dose approximately 0.2 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 45 mcg/kg/day). The mouse NOAEL was observed with a dose approximately 0.07 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 15 mcg/kg/day).

In an embryofetal development study with pregnant rats dosed by the inhalation route throughout the period of organogenesis, fluticasone propionate produced decreased fetal body weights and skeletal variations, in the presence of maternal toxicity, at a dose approximately 0.25 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal inhalation dose of 25.7 mcg/kg/day); however, there was no evidence of teratogenicity. The NOAEL was observed with a dose approximately 0.05 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal inhalation dose of 5.5 mcg/kg/day).

In an embryofetal development study in pregnant rabbits that were dosed by the subcutaneous route throughout organogenesis, fluticasone propionate produced reductions of fetal body weights, in the presence of maternal toxicity, at doses approximately 0.012 times the MRHDID and higher (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.57 mcg/kg/day). Teratogenicity was evident based upon a finding of cleft palate for 1 fetus at a dose approximately 0.08 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 4 mcg/kg/day). The NOAEL was observed in rabbit fetuses with a dose approximately 0.002 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.08 mcg/kg/day).

Fluticasone propionate crossed the placenta following subcutaneous administration to mice and rats and oral administration to rabbits.

In a pre- and post-natal development study in pregnant rats dosed by the subcutaneous route from late gestation through delivery and lactation (Gestation Day 17 to Postpartum Day 22), fluticasone propionate was not associated with decreases in pup body weight, and had no effects on developmental landmarks, learning, memory, reflexes, or fertility at doses up to 0.5 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis with maternal subcutaneous doses up to 50 mcg/kg/day).

Salmeterol: In 3 embryofetal development studies, pregnant rabbits received oral administration of salmeterol at doses ranging from 100 to 10,000 mcg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. In pregnant Dutch rabbits administered salmeterol doses approximately 50 times the MRHDID (on an AUC basis at maternal oral doses of 1,000 mcg/kg/day and higher), fetal toxic effects were observed characteristically resulting from beta-adrenoceptor stimulation. These included precocious eyelid openings, cleft palate, sternebral fusion, limb and paw flexures, and delayed ossification of the frontal cranial bones. No such effects occurred at a salmeterol dose approximately 20 times the MRHDID (on an AUC basis at a maternal oral dose of 600 mcg/kg/day). New Zealand White rabbits were less sensitive since only delayed ossification of the frontal cranial bones was seen at a salmeterol dose approximately 2,000 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 10,000 mcg/kg/day).

In 2 embryofetal development studies, pregnant rats received salmeterol by oral administration at doses ranging from 100 to 10,000 mcg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. Salmeterol produced no maternal toxicity or embryofetal effects at doses up to 973 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis at maternal oral doses up to 10,000 mcg/kg/day).

In a peri- and post-natal development study in pregnant rats dosed by the oral route from late gestation through delivery and lactation, salmeterol at a dose 973 times the MRHDID (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal oral dose of 10,000 mcg/kg/day) was fetotoxic and decreased the fertility of survivors.

Salmeterol xinafoate crossed the placenta following oral administration to mice and rats.

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