Fluticasone Propionate and Salmeterol DISKUS (Page 9 of 13)

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Fluticasone Propionate: Healthy Subjects: Fluticasone propionate acts locally in the lung; therefore, plasma levels do not predict therapeutic effect. Trials using oral dosing of labeled and unlabeled drug have demonstrated that the oral systemic bioavailability of fluticasone propionate is negligible (<1%), primarily due to incomplete absorption and presystemic metabolism in the gut and liver. In contrast, the majority of the fluticasone propionate delivered to the lung is systemically absorbed.

Following administration of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS to healthy adult subjects, peak plasma concentrations of fluticasone propionate were achieved in 1 to 2 hours. In a single‑dose crossover trial, a higher-than-recommended dose of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS was administered to 14 healthy adult subjects. Two (2) inhalations of the following treatments were administered: fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 500/50 mcg, fluticasone propionate inhalation powder 500 mcg and salmeterol inhalation powder 50 mcg given concurrently, and fluticasone propionate inhalation powder 500 mcg alone. Mean peak plasma concentrations of fluticasone propionate averaged 107, 94, and 120 pg/mL, respectively, indicating no significant changes in systemic exposures of fluticasone propionate.

In 15 healthy subjects, systemic exposure to fluticasone propionate from 4 inhalations of ADVAIR HFA 230/21 (fluticasone propionate 230 mcg and salmeterol 21 mcg) Inhalation Aerosol (920/84 mcg) and 2 inhalations of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 500/50 mcg (1,000/100 mcg) was similar between the 2 inhalers (i.e., 799 versus 832 pg•h/mL, respectively), but approximately half the systemic exposure from 4 inhalations of fluticasone propionate CFC inhalation aerosol 220 mcg (880 mcg, AUC = 1,543 pg•h/mL). Similar results were observed for peak fluticasone propionate plasma concentrations (186 and 182 pg/mL from ADVAIR HFA and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS, respectively, and 307 pg/mL from the fluticasone propionate CFC inhalation aerosol). Absolute bioavailability of fluticasone propionate was 5.3% and 5.5% following administration of ADVAIR HFA and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS, respectively.

Subjects with Asthma and COPD: Peak steady-state fluticasone propionate plasma concentrations in adult subjects with asthma (N = 11) ranged from undetectable to 266 pg/mL after a 500-mcg twice-daily dose of fluticasone propionate inhalation powder using the DISKUS inhaler. The mean fluticasone propionate plasma concentration was 110 pg/mL.

Full pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained from 9 female and 16 male subjects with asthma given fluticasone propionate inhalation powder 500 mcg twice daily using the DISKUS inhaler and from 14 female and 43 male subjects with COPD given 250 or 500 mcg twice daily. No overall differences in fluticasone propionate pharmacokinetics were observed.

Peak steady-state fluticasone propionate plasma concentrations in subjects with COPD averaged 53 pg/mL (range: 19.3 to 159.3 pg/mL) after treatment with 250 mcg twice daily (n = 30) and 84 pg/mL (range: 24.3 to 197.1 pg/mL) after treatment with 500 mcg twice daily (n = 27) via the fluticasone propionate DISKUS inhaler. In another trial in subjects with COPD, peak steady-state fluticasone propionate plasma concentrations averaged 115 pg/mL (range: 52.6 to 366.0 pg/mL) after treatment with 500 mcg twice daily via the fluticasone propionate DISKUS inhaler (n = 15) and 105 pg/mL (range: 22.5 to 299.0 pg/mL) via fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS (n = 24).

Salmeterol Xinafoate: Healthy Subjects: Salmeterol xinafoate, an ionic salt, dissociates in solution so that the salmeterol and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (xinafoate) moieties are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated independently. Salmeterol acts locally in the lung; therefore, plasma levels do not predict therapeutic effect.

Following administration of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS to healthy adult subjects, peak plasma concentrations of salmeterol were achieved in about 5 minutes.

In 15 healthy subjects receiving ADVAIR HFA 230/21 Inhalation Aerosol (920/84 mcg) and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 500/50 mcg (1,000/100 mcg), systemic exposure to salmeterol was higher (317 versus 169 pg•h/mL) and peak salmeterol concentrations were lower (196 versus 223 pg/mL) following ADVAIR HFA compared with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS, although pharmacodynamic results were comparable.

Subjects with Asthma: Because of the small therapeutic dose, systemic levels of salmeterol are low or undetectable after inhalation of recommended dosages (50 mcg of salmeterol inhalation powder twice daily). Following chronic administration of an inhaled dose of 50 mcg of salmeterol inhalation powder twice daily, salmeterol was detected in plasma within 5 to 45 minutes in 7 subjects with asthma; plasma concentrations were very low, with mean peak concentrations of 167 pg/mL at 20 minutes and no accumulation with repeated doses.

Distribution

Fluticasone Propionate: Following intravenous administration, the initial disposition phase for fluticasone propionate was rapid and consistent with its high lipid solubility and tissue binding. The volume of distribution averaged 4.2 L/kg.

The percentage of fluticasone propionate bound to human plasma proteins averages 99%. Fluticasone propionate is weakly and reversibly bound to erythrocytes and is not significantly bound to human transcortin.

Salmeterol: The percentage of salmeterol bound to human plasma proteins averages 96% in vitro over the concentration range of 8 to 7,722 ng of salmeterol base per milliliter, much higher concentrations than those achieved following therapeutic doses of salmeterol.

Metabolism

Fluticasone Propionate: The total clearance of fluticasone propionate is high (average, 1,093 mL/min), with renal clearance accounting for <0.02% of the total. The only circulating metabolite detected in man is the 17β-carboxylic acid derivative of fluticasone propionate, which is formed through the CYP3A4 pathway. This metabolite had less affinity (approximately 1/2,000) than the parent drug for the glucocorticoid receptor of human lung cytosol in vitro and negligible pharmacological activity in animal studies. Other metabolites detected in vitro using cultured human hepatoma cells have not been detected in man.

Salmeterol: Salmeterol base is extensively metabolized by hydroxylation, with subsequent elimination predominantly in the feces. No significant amount of unchanged salmeterol base was detected in either urine or feces.

An in vitro study using human liver microsomes showed that salmeterol is extensively metabolized to α-hydroxysalmeterol (aliphatic oxidation) by CYP3A4. Ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, essentially completely inhibited the formation of α-hydroxysalmeterol in vitro.

Elimination

Fluticasone Propionate: Following intravenous dosing, fluticasone propionate showed polyexponential kinetics and had a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 7.8 hours. Less than 5% of a radiolabeled oral dose was excreted in the urine as metabolites, with the remainder excreted in the feces as parent drug and metabolites. Terminal half-life estimates of fluticasone propionate for ADVAIR HFA, fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS, and fluticasone propionate CFC inhalation aerosol were similar and averaged 5.6 hours.

Salmeterol: In 2 healthy adult subjects who received 1 mg of radiolabeled salmeterol (as salmeterol xinafoate) orally, approximately 25% and 60% of the radiolabeled salmeterol was eliminated in urine and feces, respectively, over a period of 7 days. The terminal elimination half-life was about 5.5 hours (1 volunteer only).

The xinafoate moiety has no apparent pharmacologic activity. The xinafoate moiety is highly protein bound (>99%) and has a long elimination half-life of 11 days. No terminal half-life estimates were calculated for salmeterol following administration of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS.

Specific Populations

A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed for fluticasone propionate and salmeterol utilizing data from 9 controlled clinical trials that included 350 subjects with asthma aged 4 to 77 years who received treatment with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS, the combination of HFA-propelled fluticasone propionate and salmeterol inhalation aerosol (ADVAIR HFA), fluticasone propionate inhalation powder (FLOVENT DISKUS), HFA-propelled fluticasone propionate inhalation aerosol (FLOVENT HFA), or CFC-propelled fluticasone propionate inhalation aerosol. The population pharmacokinetic analyses for fluticasone propionate and salmeterol showed no clinically relevant effects of age, gender, race, body weight, body mass index, or percent of predicted FEV1 on apparent clearance and apparent volume of distribution.

Age: When the population pharmacokinetic analysis for fluticasone propionate was divided into subgroups based on fluticasone propionate strength, formulation, and age (adolescents/adults and children), there were some differences in fluticasone propionate exposure. Higher fluticasone propionate exposure from fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 100/50 mcg compared with FLOVENT DISKUS 100 mcg was observed in adolescents and adults (ratio 1.52 [90% CI: 1.08, 2.13]). However, in clinical trials of up to 12 weeks’ duration comparing fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 100/50 mcg and FLOVENT DISKUS 100 mcg in adolescents and adults, no differences in systemic effects of corticosteroid treatment (e.g., HPA axis effects) were observed. Similar fluticasone propionate exposure was observed from fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 500/50 mcg and FLOVENT DISKUS 500 mcg (ratio 0.83 [90% CI: 0.65, 1.07]) in adolescents and adults.

Steady-state systemic exposure to salmeterol when delivered as fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 100/50 mcg, fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 250/50 mcg, or ADVAIR HFA 115/21 (fluticasone propionate 115 mcg and salmeterol 21 mcg) Inhalation Aerosol was evaluated in 127 subjects aged 4 to 57 years. The geometric mean AUC was 325 pg•h/mL (90% CI: 309, 341) in adolescents and adults.

The population pharmacokinetic analysis included 160 subjects with asthma aged 4 to 11 years who received fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 100/50 mcg or FLOVENT DISKUS 100 mcg. Higher fluticasone propionate exposure (AUC) was observed in children from fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 100/50 mcg compared with FLOVENT DISKUS 100 mcg (ratio 1.20 [90% CI: 1.06, 1.37]). Higher fluticasone propionate exposure (AUC) from fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 100/50 mcg was observed in children compared with adolescents and adults (ratio 1.63 [90% CI: 1.35, 1.96]). However, in clinical trials of up to 12 weeks’ duration comparing fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 100/50 mcg and FLOVENT DISKUS 100 mcg in both adolescents and adults and in children, no differences in systemic effects of corticosteroid treatment (e.g., HPA axis effects) were observed.

Exposure to salmeterol was higher in children compared with adolescents and adults who received fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 100/50 mcg (ratio 1.23 [90% CI: 1.10, 1.38]). However, in clinical trials of up to 12 weeks’ duration with fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS 100/50 mcg in both adolescents and adults and in children, no differences in systemic effects of beta2 -agonist treatment (e.g., cardiovascular effects, tremor) were observed.

Male and Female Patients: The population pharmacokinetic analysis involved 202 males and 148 females with asthma who received fluticasone propionate alone or in combination with salmeterol and showed no gender differences for fluticasone propionate pharmacokinetics.

The population pharmacokinetic analysis involved 76 males and 51 females with asthma who received salmeterol in combination with fluticasone propionate and showed no gender differences for salmeterol pharmacokinetics.

Patients with Hepatic and Renal Impairment: Formal pharmacokinetic studies using fluticasone propionate/salmeterol DISKUS have not been conducted in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. However, since both fluticasone propionate and salmeterol are predominantly cleared by hepatic metabolism, impairment of liver function may lead to accumulation of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol in plasma. Therefore, patients with hepatic disease should be closely monitored.

Drug Interaction Studies

In the repeat- and single-dose trials, there was no evidence of significant drug interaction in systemic exposure between fluticasone propionate and salmeterol when given alone or in combination via the DISKUS. The population pharmacokinetic analysis from 9 controlled clinical trials in 350 subjects with asthma showed no significant effects on fluticasone propionate or salmeterol pharmacokinetics following co-administration with beta2 -agonists, corticosteroids, antihistamines, or theophyllines.

Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 3A4: Ritonavir: Fluticasone Propionate: Fluticasone propionate is a substrate of CYP3A4. Coadministration of fluticasone propionate and the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor ritonavir is not recommended based upon a multiple-dose, crossover drug interaction trial in 18 healthy subjects. Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray (200 mcg once daily) was coadministered for 7 days with ritonavir (100 mg twice daily). Plasma fluticasone propionate concentrations following fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray alone were undetectable (<10 pg/mL) in most subjects, and when concentrations were detectable peak levels (Cmax ) averaged 11.9 pg/mL (range: 10.8 to 14.1 pg/mL) and AUC(0-τ) averaged 8.43 pg•h/mL (range: 4.2 to 18.8 pg•h/mL). Fluticasone propionate Cmax and AUC(0-τ) increased to 318 pg/mL (range: 110 to 648 pg/mL) and 3,102.6 pg•h/mL (range: 1,207.1 to 5,662.0 pg•h/mL), respectively, after coadministration of ritonavir with fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray. This significant increase in plasma fluticasone propionate exposure resulted in a significant decrease (86%) in serum cortisol AUC.

Ketoconazole: Fluticasone Propionate: In a placebo-controlled crossover trial in 8 healthy adult volunteers, coadministration of a single dose of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate (1,000 mcg) with multiple doses of ketoconazole (200 mg) to steady state resulted in increased plasma fluticasone propionate exposure, a reduction in plasma cortisol AUC, and no effect on urinary excretion of cortisol.

Salmeterol: In a placebo-controlled, crossover drug interaction trial in 20 healthy male and female subjects, coadministration of salmeterol (50 mcg twice daily) and the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole (400 mg once daily) for 7 days resulted in a significant increase in plasma salmeterol exposure as determined by a 16-fold increase in AUC (ratio with and without ketoconazole 15.76 [90% CI: 10.66, 23.31]) mainly due to increased bioavailability of the swallowed portion of the dose. Peak plasma salmeterol concentrations were increased by 1.4-fold (90% CI: 1.23, 1.68). Three (3) out of 20 subjects (15%) were withdrawn from salmeterol and ketoconazole coadministration due to beta-agonist–mediated systemic effects (2 with QTc prolongation and 1 with palpitations and sinus tachycardia). Coadministration of salmeterol and ketoconazole did not result in a clinically significant effect on mean heart rate, mean blood potassium, or mean blood glucose. Although there was no statistical effect on the mean QTc, coadministration of salmeterol and ketoconazole was associated with more frequent increases in QTc duration compared with salmeterol and placebo administration.

Erythromycin: Fluticasone Propionate: In a multiple-dose drug interaction trial, coadministration of orally inhaled fluticasone propionate (500 mcg twice daily) and erythromycin (333 mg 3 times daily) did not affect fluticasone propionate pharmacokinetics.

Salmeterol: In a repeat-dose trial in 13 healthy subjects, concomitant administration of erythromycin (a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor) and salmeterol inhalation aerosol resulted in a 40% increase in salmeterol Cmax at steady state (ratio with and without erythromycin 1.4 [90% CI: 0.96, 2.03], P = 0.12), a 3.6-beat/min increase in heart rate ([95% CI: 0.19, 7.03], P< 0.04), a 5.8-msec increase in QTc interval ([95% CI: -6.14, 17.77], P = 0.34), and no change in plasma potassium.

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