Animal findings suggest fertility may be impaired while taking fluvoxamine [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
The efficacy of fluvoxamine maleate for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder was demonstrated in a 10-week multicenter placebo controlled study with 120 outpatients ages 8-17. In addition, 99 of these outpatients continued open-label fluvoxamine maleate treatment for up to another one to three years, equivalent to 94 patient years. The adverse event profile observed in that study was generally similar to that observed in adult studies with fluvoxamine [see Adverse Reactions (6.3), Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Decreased appetite and weight loss have been observed in association with the use of fluvoxamine as well as other SSRIs. Consequently, regular monitoring of weight and growth is recommended if treatment of a child with an SSRI is to be continued long term.
The risks, if any, that may be associated with fluvoxamine’s extended use in children and adolescents with OCD have not been systematically assessed. The prescriber should be mindful that the evidence relied upon to conclude that fluvoxamine is safe for use in children and adolescents derives from relatively short term clinical studies and from extrapolation of experience gained with adult patients. In particular, there are no studies that directly evaluate the effects of long term fluvoxamine use on the growth, cognitive behavioral development, and maturation of children and adolescents. Although there is no affirmative finding to suggest that fluvoxamine possesses a capacity to adversely affect growth, development or maturation, the absence of such findings is not compelling evidence of the absence of the potential of fluvoxamine to have adverse effects in chronic use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population other than pediatric patients with OCD have not been established [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Anyone considering the use of Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets in a child or adolescent must balance the potential risks with the clinical need.
Approximately 230 patients participating in controlled premarketing studies with Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets were 65 years of age or over. No overall differences in safety were observed between these patients and younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. However, SSRIs and SNRIs, including Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets, have been associated with several cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse event [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]. Furthermore, the clearance of fluvoxamine is decreased by about 50% in elderly compared to younger patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] , and greater sensitivity of some older individuals also cannot be ruled out. Consequently, a lower starting dose should be considered in elderly patients and Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets should be slowly titrated during initiation of therapy.
Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets are not a controlled substance.
The potential for abuse, tolerance and physical dependence with fluvoxamine maleate has been studied in a nonhuman primate model. No evidence of dependency phenomena was found. The discontinuation effects of Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets were not systematically evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets were not systematically studied in clinical trials for potential for abuse, but there was no indication of drug-seeking behavior in clinical trials. It should be noted, however, that patients at risk for drug dependency were systematically excluded from investigational studies of fluvoxamine maleate. Generally, it is not possible to predict on the basis of preclinical or premarketing clinical experience the extent to which a CNS active drug will be misused, diverted, and/or abused once marketed. Consequently, physicians should carefully evaluate patients for a history of drug abuse and follow such patients closely, observing them for signs of fluvoxamine maleate misuse or abuse (i.e., development of tolerance, incrementation of dose, drug-seeking behavior).
The following have been reported with fluvoxamine tablet overdosage:
- Seizures, which may be delayed, and altered mental status including coma.
- Cardiovascular toxicity, which may be delayed, including QRS and QTc interval prolongation. Hypertension most commonly seen, but rarely can see hypotension alone or with co-ingestants including alcohol.
- Serotonin syndrome (patients with a multiple drug overdosage with other pro-serotonergic drugs may have a higher risk).
Gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal should be considered in patients who present early after a fluvoxamine overdose.
Consider contacting a poison center (1-800-221-2222) or a medical toxicologist for overdosage management recommendations.
Fluvoxamine maleate is a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) belonging to the chemical series, the 2-aminoethyl oxime ethers of aralkylketones.
It is chemically designated as 5-methoxy-4′-(trifluoromethyl)valerophenone-(E)-O-(2-aminoethyl)oxime maleate (1:1) and has the empirical formula C15 H21 O2 N2 F3 ∙C4 H4 O4 . Its molecular weight is 434.41.
The structural formula is:
Fluvoxamine maleate is a white to off white, odorless, crystalline powder which is sparingly soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol and chloroform and practically insoluble in diethyl ether.
Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets are available in 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg strengths for oral administration. In addition to the active ingredient, fluvoxamine maleate, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: mannitol, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, pregelatinized starch (potato), silicon dioxide, sodium stearyl fumarate, starch (corn), talc, and titanium dioxide. The 50 mg and 100 mg tablets also contain synthetic iron oxides.
The mechanism of action of fluvoxamine maleate in obsessive compulsive disorder is presumed to be linked to its specific serotonin reuptake inhibition in brain neurons. Fluvoxamine has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of the serotonin reuptake transporter in preclinical studies, both in vitro and in vivo.
In in vitro studies, fluvoxamine maleate had no significant affinity for histaminergic, alpha or beta adrenergic, muscarinic, or dopaminergic receptors. Antagonism of some of these receptors is thought to be associated with various sedative, cardiovascular, anticholinergic, and extrapyramidal effects of some psychotropic drugs.
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