The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs, including Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets, alone but particularly with concomitant use of serotonergic drugs (including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, busipirone, amphetamines, and St. John’s Wort) and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).
Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea). Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome.
The concomitant use of Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets with MAOIs intended to treat psychiatric disorders is contraindicated. Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets should also not be started in a patient who is being treated with MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue. All reports with methylene blue that provided information on the route of administration involved intravenous administration in the dose range of 1 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg. No reports involved the administration of methylene blue by other routes (such as oral tablets or local tissue injection) or at lower doses. There may be circumstances when it is necessary to initiate treatment with an MAOI such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue in a patient taking Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets. Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets should be discontinued before initiating treatment with the MAOI. [see CONTRAINDICATIONS (4.2) and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION (2.5 and 2.6)].
If concomitant use of Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets with other serotonergic drugs, including triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, buspirone, tryptophan, amphetamines, and St. John’s Wort is clinically warranted, patients should be made aware of a potential increased risk for serotonin syndrome, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases.
Treatment with Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets and any concomitant serotonergic agents, should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated.
The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who do not have a patent iridectomy.
The effect of fluvoxamine (25 mg b.i.d. for one week) on thioridazine steady-state concentrations was evaluated in 10 male inpatients with schizophrenia. Concentrations of thioridazine and its two active metabolites, mesoridazine and sulforidazine, increased threefold following coadministration of fluvoxamine.
Thioridazine administration produces a dose-related prolongation of the QTc interval, which is associated with serious ventricular arrhythmias, such as torsades de pointes-type arrhythmias, and sudden death. It is likely that this experience underestimates the degree of risk that might occur with higher doses of thioridazine. Moreover, the effect of fluvoxamine may be even more pronounced when it is administered at higher doses.
Therefore, fluvoxamine and thioridazine should not be coadministered. [See CONTRAINDICATIONS (4.1)].
Fluvoxamine is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2 and tizanidine is a CYP1A2 substrate. The effect of fluvoxamine (100 mg daily for 4 days) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single 4 mg dose of tizanidine has been studied in 10 healthy male subjects. Tizanidine Cmax was increased approximately 12-fold (range 5-fold to 32-fold), elimination half-life was increased by almost 3-fold, and AUC increased 33-fold (range 14-fold to 103-fold). The mean maximal effect on blood pressure was a 35 mm Hg decrease in systolic blood pressure, a 20 mm Hg decrease in diastolic blood pressure, and a 4 beat/min decrease in heart rate. Drowsiness was significantly increased and performance on the psychomotor task was significantly impaired. Fluvoxamine and tizanidine should not be used together. [See CONTRAINDICATIONS (4.1)].
Pimozide is metabolized by the cytochrome P4503A4 isoenzyme, and it has been demonstrated that ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, blocks the metabolism of this drug, resulting in increased plasma concentrations of parent drug. An increased plasma concentration of pimozide causes QT prolongation and has been associated with torsades de pointes-type ventricular tachycardia, sometimes fatal. As noted below, a substantial pharmacokinetic interaction has been observed for fluvoxamine in combination with alprazolam, a drug that is known to be metabolized by CYP3A4. Although it has not been definitively demonstrated that fluvoxamine is a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, it is likely to be, given the substantial interaction of fluvoxamine with alprazolam. Consequently, it is recommended that fluvoxamine not be used in combination with pimozide. [See CONTRAINDICATIONS (4.1)].
Because alosetron is metabolized by a variety of hepatic CYP drug metabolizing enzymes, inducers or inhibitors of these enzymes may change the clearance of alosetron. Fluvoxamine is a known potent inhibitor of CYP1A2 and also inhibits CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. In a pharmacokinetic study, 40 healthy female subjects received fluvoxamine in escalating doses from 50 mg to 200 mg a day for 16 days, with coadministration of alosetron 1 mg on the last day. Fluvoxamine increased mean alosetron plasma concentration (AUC) approximately 6-fold and prolonged the half-life by approximately 3-fold. [See CONTRAINDICATIONS (4.1) and LotronexTM (alosetron) package insert].
Benzodiazepines: Benzodiazepines metabolized by hepatic oxidation (e.g., alprazolam, midazolam, triazolam, etc.) should be used with caution because the clearance of these drugs is likely to be reduced by fluvoxamine. The clearance of benzodiazepines metabolized by glucuronidation (e.g., lorazepam, oxazepam, temazepam) is unlikely to be affected by fluvoxamine.
Alprazolam — When fluvoxamine maleate (100 mg q.d.) and alprazolam (1 mg q.i.d.) were coadministered to steady state, plasma concentrations and other pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, Cmax , T½ ) of alprazolam were approximately twice those observed when alprazolam was administered alone; oral clearance was reduced by about 50%. The elevated plasma alprazolam concentrations resulted in decreased psychomotor performance and memory. This interaction, which has not been investigated using higher doses of fluvoxamine, may be more pronounced if a 300 mg daily dose is coadministered, particularly since fluvoxamine exhibits non-linear pharmacokinetics over the dosage range 100-300 mg. If alprazolam is coadministered with Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets, the initial alprazolam dosage should be at least halved and titration to the lowest effective dose is recommended. No dosage adjustment is required for Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets.
Diazepam — The coadministration of Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets and diazepam is generally not advisable. Because fluvoxamine reduces the clearance of both diazepam and its active metabolite, N-desmethyldiazepam, there is a strong likelihood of substantial accumulation of both species during chronic coadministration.
Evidence supporting the conclusion that it is inadvisable to coadminister fluvoxamine and diazepam is derived from a study in which healthy volunteers taking 150 mg/day of fluvoxamine were administered a single oral dose of 10 mg of diazepam. In these subjects (N=8), the clearance of diazepam was reduced by 65% and that of N-desmethyldiazepam to a level that was too low to measure over the course of the 2 week long study.
It is likely that this experience significantly underestimates the degree of accumulation that might occur with repeated diazepam administration. Moreover, as noted with alprazolam, the effect of fluvoxamine may even be more pronounced when it is administered at higher doses.
Accordingly, diazepam and fluvoxamine should not ordinarily be coadministered.
Clozapine — Elevated serum levels of clozapine have been reported in patients taking fluvoxamine maleate and clozapine. Since clozapine-related seizures and orthostatic hypotension appear to be dose related, the risk of these adverse events may be higher when fluvoxamine and clozapine are coadministered. Patients should be closely monitored when fluvoxamine maleate and clozapine are used concurrently.
Methadone: Significantly increased methadone (plasma level:dose) ratios have been reported when fluvoxamine maleate was administered to patients receiving maintenance methadone treatment, with symptoms of opioid intoxication in one patient. Opioid withdrawal symptoms were reported following fluvoxamine maleate discontinuation in another patient.
Mexiletine: The effect of steady-state fluvoxamine (50 mg b.i.d. for 7 days) on the single dose pharmacokinetics of mexiletine (200 mg) was evaluated in 6 healthy Japanese males. The clearance of mexiletine was reduced by 38% following coadministration with fluvoxamine compared to mexiletine alone. If fluvoxamine and mexiletine are coadministered, serum mexiletine levels should be monitored.
Ramelteon: When fluvoxamine 100 mg twice daily was administered for 3 days prior to single-dose coadministration of ramelteon 16 mg and fluvoxamine, the AUC for ramelteon increased approximately 190-fold and the Cmax increased approximately 70-fold compared to ramelteon administered alone. Ramelteon should not be used in combination with fluvoxamine.
Theophylline: The effect of steady-state fluvoxamine (50 mg bid) on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of theophylline (375 mg as 442 mg aminophylline) was evaluated in 12 healthy non-smoking, male volunteers. The clearance of theophylline was decreased approximately 3-fold. Therefore, if theophylline is coadministered with fluvoxamine maleate, its dose should be reduced to one-third of the usual daily maintenance dose and plasma concentrations of theophylline should be monitored. No dosage adjustment is required for Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets.
Warfarin and Other Drugs That Interfere With Hemostasis (NSAIDs, Aspirin, etc.): Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Epidemiological studies of the case-control and cohort design have demonstrated an association between use of psychotropic drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. These studies have also shown that concurrent use of an NSAID or aspirin may potentiate this risk of bleeding. Thus, patients should be cautioned about the use of such drugs concurrently with fluvoxamine [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, Abnormal Bleeding (5.10)].
Warfarin — When fluvoxamine maleate (50 mg t.i.d.) was administered concomitantly with warfarin for two weeks, warfarin plasma concentrations increased by 98% and prothrombin times were prolonged. Thus patients receiving oral anticoagulants and Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets should have their prothrombin time monitored and their anticoagulant dose adjusted accordingly. No dosage adjustment is required for Fluvoxamine Maleate Tablets.
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