FOMEPIZOLE- fomepizole injection, solution
Caution: Must be diluted prior to use.
It is a clear to yellow liquid at room temperature. Its melting point is 25°C (77°F) and it may present in a solid form at room temperature. Fomepizole is soluble in water and very soluble in ethanol, diethyl ether, and chloroform. Each vial contains 1.5 mL (1 g/mL) of fomepizole.
Mechanism of Action : Fomepizole is a competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase. Alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Alcohol dehydrogenase also catalyzes the initial steps in the metabolism of ethylene glycol and methanol to their toxic metabolites.
Ethylene glycol, the main component of most antifreezes and coolants, is metabolized to glycoaldehyde, which undergoes subsequent sequential oxidations to yield glycolate, glyoxylate, and oxalate. Glycolate and oxalate are the metabolic byproducts primarily responsible for the metabolic acidosis and renal damage seen in ethylene glycol toxicosis. The lethal dose of ethylene glycol in humans is approximately 1.4 mL/kg.
Methanol, the main component of windshield wiper fluid, is slowly metabolized via alcohol dehydrogenase to formaldehyde with subsequent oxidation via formaldehyde dehydrogenase to yield formic acid. Formic acid is primarily responsible for the metabolic acidosis and visual disturbances (e.g., decreased visual acuity and potential blindness) associated with methanol poisoning. A lethal dose of methanol in humans is approximately 1 to 2 mL/kg.
Fomepizole has been shown in vitro to block alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity in dog, monkey, and human liver. The concentration of fomepizole at which alcohol dehydrogenase is inhibited by 50% in vitro is approximately 0.1 µmol/L.
In a study of dogs given a lethal dose of ethylene glycol, three animals each were administered fomepizole, ethanol, or left untreated (control group). The three animals in the untreated group became progressively obtunded, moribund, and died. At necropsy, all three dogs had severe renal tubular damage. Fomepizole or ethanol, given 3 hours after ethylene glycol ingestion, attenuated the metabolic acidosis and prevented the renal tubular damage associated with ethylene glycol intoxication.
Several studies have demonstrated that fomepizole plasma concentrations of approximately 10 µmol/L (0.82 mg/L) in monkeys are sufficient to inhibit methanol metabolism to formate, which is also mediated by alcohol dehydrogenase. Based on these results, concentrations of fomepizole in humans in the range of 100 to 300 µmol/L (8.6 to 24.6 mg/L) have been targeted to assure adequate plasma concentrations for the effective inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase.
In healthy volunteers, oral doses of fomepizole (10 to 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the rate of elimination of moderate doses of ethanol, which is also metabolized through the action of alcohol dehydrogenase (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
Pharmacokinetics : The plasma half-life of fomepizole varies with dose, even in patients with normal renal function, and has not been calculated.Distribution : After intravenous infusion, fomepizole rapidly distributes to total body water. The volume of distribution is between 0.6 L/kg and 1.02 L/kg.
Metabolism : In healthy volunteers, only 1 to 3.5% of the administered dose of fomepizole (7 to 20 mg/kg oral and IV) was excreted unchanged in the urine, indicating that metabolism is the major route of elimination. In humans, the primary metabolite of fomepizole is 4-carboxypyrazole (approximately 80 to 85% of administered dose), which is excreted in the urine. Other metabolites of fomepizole observed in the urine are 4-hydroxymethylpyrazole and the N-glucuronide conjugates of 4-carboxypyrazole and 4-hydroxymethylpyrazole.
Excretion : The elimination of fomepizole is best characterized by Michaelis-Menten kinetics after acute doses, with saturable elimination occurring at therapeutic blood concentrations [100 to 300 µmol/L, 8.2 to 24.6 mg/L].
With multiple doses, fomepizole rapidly induces its own metabolism via the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which produces a significant increase in the elimination rate after about 30 to 40 hours. After enzyme induction, elimination follows first-order kinetics.
Special Populations :Geriatric : Fomepizole Injection has not been studied sufficiently to determine whether the pharmacokinetics differ for a geriatric population.
Pediatric : Fomepizole has not been studied sufficiently to determine whether the pharmacokinetics differ for a pediatric population.
Gender : Fomepizole has not been studied sufficiently to determine whether the pharmacokinetics differ between the genders.
Renal Insufficiency : The metabolites of fomepizole are excreted renally. Definitive pharmacokinetic studies have not been done to assess pharmacokinetics in patients with renal impairment.Hepatic Insufficiency : Fomepizole is metabolized through the liver, but no definitive pharmacokinetic studies have been done in subjects with hepatic disease.
The efficacy of fomepizole in the treatment of ethylene glycol and methanol intoxication was studied in two prospective, U.S. clinical trials without concomitant control groups. Fourteen of 16 patients in the ethylene glycol trial and 7 of 11 patients in the methanol trial underwent hemodialysis because of severe intoxication (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). All patients received fomepizole shortly after admission.
The results of these two studies provide evidence that fomepizole blocks ethylene glycol and methanol metabolism mediated by alcohol dehydrogenase in the clinical setting. In both studies, plasma concentrations of toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol and methanol failed to rise in the initial phases of treatment. The relationship to fomepizole therapy, however, was confounded by hemodialysis and significant blood ethanol concentrations in many of the patients. Nevertheless, in the post-dialysis period(s), when ethanol concentrations were insignificant and the concentrations of ethylene glycol or methanol were > 20 mg/dL, the administration of fomepizole alone blocked any rise in glycolate or formate concentrations, respectively.
Fomepizole is indicated as an antidote for ethylene glycol (such as antifreeze) or methanol poisoning, or for use in suspected ethylene glycol or methanol ingestion, either alone or in combination with hemodialysis (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION)
Fomepizole should not be administered to patients with a documented serious hypersensitivity reaction to fomepizole or other pyrazoles.
Fomepizole should not be given undiluted or by bolus injection. Venous irritation and phlebosclerosis were noted in two of six normal volunteers given bolus injections (over 5 minutes) of fomepizole at a concentration of 25 mg/mL.
Minor allergic reactions (mild rash, eosinophilia) have been reported in a few patients receiving fomepizole (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Therefore, patients should be monitored for signs of allergic reactions.DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Treatment success should be assessed by frequent measurements of blood gases, pH, electrolytes, BUN, creatinine, and urinalysis, in addition to other laboratory tests as indicated by individual patient conditions. At frequent intervals throughout the treatment, patients poisoned with ethylene glycol should be monitored for ethylene glycol concentrations in serum and urine, and the presence of urinary oxalate crystals. Similarly, serum methanol concentrations should be monitored in patients poisoned with methanol.Electrocardiography should be performed because acidosis and electrolyte imbalances can affect the cardiovascular system. In the comatose patient, electroencephalography may also be required. In addition, hepatic enzymes and white blood cell counts should be monitored during treatment, as transient increases in serum transaminase concentrations and eosinophilia have been noted with repeated fomepizole dosing.
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