FOSPHENYTOIN SODIUM- fosphenytoin sodium injection
Amneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC
| WARNING: CARDIOVASCULAR RISK ASSOCIATED WITH RAPID INFUSION RATES |
The rate of intravenous fosphenytoin administration should not exceed 150 mg phenytoin sodium equivalents (PE) per minute because of the risk of severe hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. Careful cardiac monitoring is needed during and after administering intravenous fosphenytoin. Although the risk of cardiovascular toxicity increases with infusion rates above the recommended infusion rate, these events have also been reported at or below the recommended infusion rate. Reduction in rate of administration or discontinuation of dosing may be needed (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Fosphenytoin sodium injection, USP is a prodrug intended for parenteral administration; its active metabolite is phenytoin. 1.5 mg fosphenytoin sodium, USP (hereafter referred to as fosphenytoin) equivalent to 1 mg phenytoin sodium and is referred to as 1 mg phenytoin equivalents (PE). The amount and concentration of fosphenytoin is always expressed in terms of mg PE.
Fosphenytoin injection is marketed in 2 mL vials containing a total of 100 mg PE and 10 mL vials containing a total of 500 mg PE. The concentration of each vial is 50 mg PE/mL. Fosphenytoin is supplied in vials as a ready-mixed solution in Water for Injection, USP, and Tromethamine, USP (TRIS), buffer adjusted to pH 8.6 to 9.0 with either Hydrochloric Acid, NF, or Sodium Hydroxide, NF. Fosphenytoin injection is a clear, colorless to pale yellow, sterile solution.
The chemical name of fosphenytoin is 5,5-diphenyl-3-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]-2,4-imidazolidinedione disodium salt.
The molecular structure of fosphenytoin is:
The molecular weight of fosphenytoin is 406.24.
IMPORTANT NOTE: Throughout all fosphenytoin injection product labeling, the amount and concentration of fosphenytoin are always expressed in terms of phenytoin sodium equivalents (PE). Fosphenytoin’s weight is expressed as phenytoin sodium equivalents to avoid the need to perform molecular weight-based adjustments when substituting fosphenytoin for phenytoin or vice versa.
Care should be taken to ensure that fosphenytoin is always prescribed and dispensed in phenytoin sodium equivalents (PE) (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
Following parenteral administration of fosphenytoin injection, fosphenytoin is converted to the anticonvulsant phenytoin. For every mmol of fosphenytoin administered, one mmol of phenytoin is produced. The pharmacological and toxicological effects of fosphenytoin include those of phenytoin. However, the hydrolysis of fosphenytoin to phenytoin yields two metabolites, phosphate and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is subsequently converted to formate, which is in turn metabolized via a folate dependent mechanism. Although phosphate and formaldehyde (formate) have potentially important biological effects, these effects typically occur at concentrations considerably in excess of those obtained when fosphenytoin is administered under conditions of use recommended in this labeling.
Fosphenytoin is a prodrug of phenytoin and accordingly, its anticonvulsant effects are attributable to phenytoin.
After IV administration to mice, fosphenytoin blocked the tonic phase of maximal electroshock seizures at doses equivalent to those effective for phenytoin. In addition to its ability to suppress maximal electroshock seizures in mice and rats, phenytoin exhibits anticonvulsant activity against kindled seizures in rats, audiogenic seizures in mice, and seizures produced by electrical stimulation of the brainstem in rats. The cellular mechanisms of phenytoin thought to be responsible for its anticonvulsant actions include modulation of voltage-dependent sodium channels of neurons, inhibition of calcium flux across neuronal membranes, modulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels of neurons, and enhancement of the sodium-potassium ATPase activity of neurons and glial cells. The modulation of sodium channels may be a primary anticonvulsant mechanism because this property is shared with several other anticonvulsants in addition to phenytoin.
Intravenous: When fosphenytoin is administered by IV infusion, maximum plasma fosphenytoin concentrations are achieved at the end of the infusion. Fosphenytoin has a half-life of approximately 15 minutes.
Intramuscular: Fosphenytoin is completely bioavailable following IM administration of fosphenytoin. Peak concentrations occur at approximately 30 minutes postdose. Plasma fosphenytoin concentrations following IM administration are lower but more sustained than those following IV administration due to the time required for absorption of fosphenytoin from the injection site.
Distribution: Fosphenytoin is extensively bound (95% to 99%) to human plasma proteins, primarily albumin. Binding to plasma proteins is saturable with the result that the percent bound decreases as total fosphenytoin concentrations increase. Fosphenytoin displaces phenytoin from protein binding sites. The volume of distribution of fosphenytoin increases with fosphenytoin dose and rate, and ranges from 4.3 to 10.8 liters.
Metabolism and Elimination: The conversion half-life of fosphenytoin to phenytoin is approximately 15 minutes. The mechanism of fosphenytoin conversion has not been determined, but phosphatases probably play a major role. Fosphenytoin is not excreted in urine. Each mmol of fosphenytoin is metabolized to 1 mmol of phenytoin, phosphate, and formate (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Introduction and PRECAUTIONS, Phosphate Load for Renally Impaired Patients).
Phenytoin (after fosphenytoin administration)
In general, IM administration of fosphenytoin generates systemic phenytoin concentrations that are similar enough to oral phenytoin sodium to allow essentially interchangeable use.
The pharmacokinetics of fosphenytoin following IV administration of fosphenytoin, however, are complex, and when used in an emergency setting (e.g., status epilepticus), differences in rate of availability of phenytoin could be critical. Studies have therefore empirically determined an infusion rate for fosphenytoin that gives a rate and extent of phenytoin systemic availability similar to that of a 50 mg/min phenytoin sodium infusion.
A dose of 15 to 20 mg PE/kg of fosphenytoin infused at 100 to 150 mg PE/min yields plasma free phenytoin concentrations over time that approximate those achieved when an equivalent dose of phenytoin sodium (e.g., parenteral phenytoin sodium) is administered at 50 mg/min (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS).
FIGURE 1. Mean plasma unbound phenytoin concentrations following IV administration of 1200 mg PE fosphenytoin infused at 100 mg PE/min (triangles) or 150 mg PE/min (squares) and 1200 mg phenytoin sodium infused at 50 mg/min (diamonds) to healthy subjects (N = 12). Inset shows time course for the entire 96-hour sampling period.
Following administration of single IV fosphenytoin doses of 400 to 1200 mg PE, mean maximum total phenytoin concentrations increase in proportion to dose, but do not change appreciably with changes in infusion rate. In contrast, mean maximum unbound phenytoin concentrations increase with both dose and rate.
Absorption/Bioavailability: Fosphenytoin is completely converted to phenytoin following IV administration, with a half-life of approximately 15 minutes. Fosphenytoin is also completely converted to phenytoin following IM administration and plasma total phenytoin concentrations peak in approximately 3 hours.
Distribution: Phenytoin is highly bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin, although to a lesser extent than fosphenytoin. In the absence of fosphenytoin, approximately 12% of total plasma phenytoin is unbound over the clinically relevant concentration range. However, fosphenytoin displaces phenytoin from plasma protein binding sites. This increases the fraction of phenytoin unbound (up to 30% unbound) during the period required for conversion of fosphenytoin to phenytoin (approximately 0.5 to 1 hour post infusion).
Metabolism and Elimination: Phenytoin derived from administration of fosphenytoin is extensively metabolized in the liver and excreted in urine primarily as 5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin and its glucuronide; little unchanged phenytoin (1% to 5% of the fosphenytoin dose) is recovered in urine. Phenytoin is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Phenytoin hepatic metabolism is saturable, and following administration of single IV fosphenytoin doses of 400 to 1200 mg PE, total and unbound phenytoin AUC values increase disproportionately with dose. Mean total phenytoin half-life values (12 to 28.9 hr) following fosphenytoin injection administration at these doses are similar to those after equal doses of parenteral phenytoin sodium and tend to be greater at higher plasma phenytoin concentrations.
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