In women with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia, estrogen therapy may be associated with elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis. Consider discontinuation of treatment if pancreatitis occurs.
Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in women with impaired liver function. For women with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with past estrogen use or with pregnancy, caution should be exercised and in the case of recurrence, medication should be discontinued.
Estrogen administration leads to increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels. Women with normal thyroid function can compensate for the increased TBG by making more thyroid hormone, thus maintaining free T4 and T3 serum concentrations in the normal range. Women dependent on thyroid hormone replacement therapy who are also receiving estrogen may require increased doses of their thyroid replacement therapy. These women should have their thyroid function monitored in order to maintain their free thyroid hormone levels in an acceptable range.
Estrogens plus progestins may cause some degree of fluid retention. Women with conditions that might be influenced by this factor, such as cardiac or renal impairment, warrant careful observation when estrogens plus progestins are prescribed.
A few cases of malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants have been reported in women treated post-hysterectomy with estrogen-alone therapy. For women known to have residual endometriosis post-hysterectomy, the addition of progestin should be considered.
Estrogen therapy may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraine, porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus and hepatic hemangiomas, and should be used with caution in women with these conditions.
Accelerated prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation time; increased platelet count; increased factors II, VII antigen, VIII antigen, VIII coagulant activity, IX, X, XII, VII-X complex, II-VII-X complex, and beta-thromboglobulin; decreased levels of antifactor Xa and antithrombin III, decreased antithrombin III activity; increased levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen activity; increased plasminogen antigen and activity.
Increased TBG levels leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone levels as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T4 levels (by column or by radioimmunoassay) or T3 levels by radioimmunoassay. T3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG. Free T4 and free T3 concentrations are unaltered. Women on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone.
Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum, for example, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), leading to increased total circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids, respectively. Fyavolv 1/5 was associated with an SHBG increase of 22 percent. Free hormone concentrations, such as testosterone and estradiol, may be decreased. Other plasma proteins may be increased (angiotensinogen/renin substrate, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin).
Increased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL2 cholesterol subfraction concentrations, reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration, increased triglycerides levels.
Impaired glucose tolerance.
- Cardiovascular Disorders [see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.1)].
- Malignant Neoplasms [see BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS (5.2)].
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Adverse reactions reported by ≥5 percent of subjects in controlled clinical studies of norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol are shown in Table 1.
|BODY SYSTEM / Adverse Reaction||Number ( Percent ) of Subjects|
|Placebo N = 247||Norethindrone Acetate and Ethinyl Estradiol 0 . 5 / 2 . 5 N = 244||Norethindrone Acetate and Ethinyl Estradiol 1 / 5 N = 258|
|BODY AS A WHOLE||23 (12.8)||30 (16.9)||30 (15.7)|
|Edema – Generalized||10 (4.0)||12 (4.9)||11 (4.3)|
|Headache||12 (4.9)||14 (5.7)||16 (6.2)|
|DIGESTIVE SYSTEM||8 (4.4)||17 (9.6)||25 (13.1)|
|Abdominal Pain||3 (1.2)||13 (5.3)||14 (6.8)|
|UROGENITAL SYSTEM||20 (11.1)||34 (19.2)||45 (23.6)|
|Breast Pain||9 (3.6)||22 (9.0)||20 (7.8)|
The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of norethindrone acetate and ethinyl estradiol. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Changes in vaginal bleeding pattern and abnormal withdrawal bleeding or flow; breakthrough bleeding; spotting; increase in size of uterine leiomyomata, vaginitis, including vaginal candidiasis; change in amount of cervical secretion; changes in cervical ectropion; ovarian cancer; endometrial hyperplasia; endometrial cancer; uterine cancer; vaginal hemorrhage; ovarian cyst; irregular menstruation; metrorrhagia; menorrhagia; dysmenorrhea; uterine enlargement.
Tenderness, enlargement, breast pain, nipple pain, nipple discharge, galactorrhea; fibrocystic breast changes; breast cancer; breast disorder; breast mass; breast enlargement.
Deep and superficial venous thrombosis; pulmonary embolism; thrombophlebitis; thrombosis; chest pain; myocardial infarction; cerebrovascular accident (stroke); transient ischemic attack; hemiparesis; increase in blood pressure; irregular heart rate; palpitations; dyspnea.
Nausea, vomiting; cholestatic jaundice; pancreatitis, enlargement of hepatic hemangiomas; bloating, abdominal cramps; abdominal pain; increased incidence of gallbladder disease; cholecystitis; cholelithiasis.
Chloasma or melasma that may persist when drug is discontinued; generalized erythema; erythema multiforme; erythema nodosum; hemorrhagic eruption; loss of scalp hair; hirsutism; rash, pruritus.
Retinal vascular thrombosis; visual impairment; intolerance to contact lenses.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Headache; migraine; dizziness; depression; chorea; nervousness; mood disturbances; irritability; exacerbation of epilepsy, dementia; paresthesia; insomnia.
Increase or decrease in weight; reduced carbohydrate tolerance; aggravation of porphyria; edema; arthralgias; leg cramps; back pain; changes in libido; urticaria, angioedema, anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions; hypocalcemia; exacerbation of asthma; increased triglycerides; blood glucose abnormal; fatigue; myalgia; hypersensitivity.
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