Abnormal liver function tests have been observed occasionally during gemfibrozil administration, including elevations of AST, ALT, LDH, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase. These are usually reversible when gemfibrozil is discontinued. Therefore, periodic liver function studies are recommended and gemfibrozil therapy should be terminated if abnormalities persist.
There have been reports of worsening renal insufficiency upon the addition of gemfibrozil therapy in individuals with baseline plasma creatinine >2.0 mg/dL. In such patients, the use of alternative therapy should be considered against the risks and benefits of a lower dose of gemfibrozil.
Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients have not been established.
Adverse Reactions to Gemfibrozil
In the double-blind controlled phase of the primary prevention component of the Helsinki Heart Study, 2046 patients received gemfibrozil for up to five years. In that study, the following adverse reactions were statistically more frequent in subjects in the gemfibrozil group:
|Gemfibrozil (N=2046)||PLACEBO (N=2035)|
|Frequency in percent of subject|
|Acute appendicitis (Histological confirmed in most cases where data were available)||1.2||0.6|
|Adverse event reported by more than 1% of subject, but without a significant difference between groups:|
Gallbladder surgery was performed in 0.9% of gemfibrozil and 0.5% of placebo subjects in the primary prevention component, a 64% excess, which is not statistically different from the excess of gallbladder surgery observed in the clofibrate group compared to the placebo group of the WHO study. Gallbladder surgery was also performed more frequently in the gemfibrozil group compared to the placebo group (1.9% versus 0.3%, p=0.07) in the secondary prevention component. A statistically significant increase in appendectomy in the gemfibrozil group was seen also in the secondary prevention component (6 on gemfibrozil versus 0 on placebo, p=0.014).
Nervous system and special senses adverse reactions were more common in the gemfibrozil group. These included hypesthesia, paresthesias, and taste perversion. Other adverse reactions that were more common among gemfibrozil treatment group subjects but where a causal relationship was not established include cataracts, peripheral vascular disease, and intracerebral hemorrhage.
From other studies it seems probable that gemfibrozil is causally related to the occurrence of MUSCULOSKELETAL SYMPTOMS (see WARNINGS), and to ABNORMAL LIVER FUNCTION TESTS and HEMATOLOGIC CHANGES (see PRECAUTIONS).
Reports of viral and bacterial infections (common cold, cough, urinary tract infections) were more common in gemfibrozil treated patients in other controlled clinical trials of 805 patients. Additional adverse reactions that have been reported for gemfibrozil are listed below by system. These are categorized according to whether a causal relationship to treatment with gemfibrozil is probable or not established:
|CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP PROBABLE||CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP NOT ESTABLISHED|
|Gastrointestinal:||cholestatic jaundice||pancreatitis hepatoma colitis|
|Central Nervous System:||dizziness somnolence paresthesia peripheral neuritis decreased libido depression headache||confusion convulsions syncope|
|Eye:||blurred vision||retinal edema|
|Genitourinary:||impotence||decreased male fertility renal dysfunction|
|Musculoskeletal:||myopathy myasthenia myalgia painful extremities arthralgia synovitis rhabdomyolysis (see WARNINGS and Drug Interaction under PRECAUTIONS|
|Clinical Laboratory:||increased creatine phosphokinase increased bilirubin increased liver transaminases (AST, ALT) increased alkaline phosphatase||positive antinuclear antibody|
|Hematopoietic:||anemia leukopenia bone marrow hypoplasia eosinophilia||thrombocytopenia|
|Immunologic:||angioedema laryngeal edema urticaria||anaphylaxis Lupus-like syndrome vasculitis|
|Integumentary:||exfoliative dermatitis rash dermatitis pruritus||alopecia photosensitivity|
Additional adverse reactions that have been reported include cholecystitis and cholelithiasis (see WARNINGS).
The recommended dose for adults is 1200 mg administered in two divided doses 30 minutes before the morning and evening meals (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).
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